ULT-PHX    

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA

THE BOOK OF DEVOTION

DIALOGUE BETWEEN KRISHNA,
LORD OF DEVOTION,
AND ARJUNA,
PRINCE OF INDIA
 
From the Sanscrit
By WILLIAM Q. JUDGE

CONTENTS

 GLOSSARY FOR THE BHAGAVAD GITA
Some notes on this Glossary: By Dallas TenBroeck

ANTECEDENT WORDS― vii

CHAPTER I - THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA ― 1

CHAPTER II - APPLICATION TO THE SPECULATIVE DOCTRINES ― 9

CHAPTER III - THE RIGHT PERFORMANCE OF ACTION― 22

CHAPTER IV - SPIRITUAL KNOWLEDGE ―30

CHAPTER V - RENUNCIATION OF ACTION ― 38

CHAPTER VI - SELF-RESTRAINT ―44

CHAPTER VII - SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT― 53

CHAPTER VIII -THE OMNIPRESENT SPIRIT NAMED AS OM ― 58

CHAPTER IX -THE KINGLY KNOWLEDGE AND THE KINGLY MYSTERY ― 64

CHAPTER X - DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE UNIVERSAL DIVINE PERFECTIONS― 70

CHAPTER XI - VISION OF THE DIVINE FORM AS INCLUDING ALL FORMS ― 78

CHAPTER XII - DEVOTION BY MEANS OF FAITH ― 89

CHAPTER XIII -DISCRIMINATION OF THE KSHETRA FROM KSHETRAJNA ― 93

CHAPTER XIV -SEPARATION FROM THE THREE QUALITIES ― 100

CHAPTER XV -KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUPREME SPIRIT ― 105

CHAPTER XVI -DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN GODLIKE AND DEMONIACAL NATURES ― 110

CHAPTER XVII -THE THREE KINDS OF FAITH ― 115

CHAPTER XVIII -RENUNCIATION AND FINAL LIBERATION ― 121

SPACE

Antecedent Words

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THE Bhagavad-Gξtβ is an episode of the Mahβbhβrata, which is said to have been written by Vyasa. Who this Vyasa is and when he lived is not known.

J. Cockburn Thomson, in his translation of the Bhagavad-Gξtβ, says: "The Mahβbhβrata, as all students of Sanskrit well know, is the great epic of India, which from its popularity and extent would seem to correspond with the Iliad among the Greeks. The theme of the whole work is a certain war which was carried on between two branches of one tribe, the descendants of Kuru, for the sovereignty of Hβstinapura, commonly supposed to be the same as the modern Delhi. The elder branch is called by the general name of the whole tribe, Kurus; the younger goes by the patronymic, from Pandu, the father of the five principal leaders.

"This war between the Kurus and Pandavas occupies about twenty thousand slokas, or a quarter of the whole work as we now possess it.... In order to understand the al-

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lusions there [in the Bhagavad-Gξtβ] a knowledge is requisite of the previous history of the tribe, which will now be given as follows.

"Of the name Kuru we know but little, but that little is sufficient to prove that it is one of great importance. We have no means of deriving it from any Sanskrit root, nor has it, like too many of the Hindϋ names, the appearance of being explanatory of the peculiarities of the person or persons whom it designates. It is therefore in all probability a name of considerable antiquity, brought by the Aryan race from their first seat in Central Asia. Its use in Sanskrit is fourfold. It is the name of the northern quarter or Dwipa of the world, and is described as lying between the most northern range of snowy mountains and the polar sea. It is further the name of the most northern of the nine varshas of the known world. Among the long genealogies of the tribe itself it is known as the name of an ancient king to whom the foundation of the tribe is attributed. Lastly, it designates an Aryan tribe of sufficient importance to disturb the whole of northern India with its factions, and to make its battles the theme of the longest epic of olden time.

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"Viewing these facts together we should be inclined to draw the conclusion that the name was originally that of a race inhabiting Central Asia beyond the Himalaya, who emigrated with other races into the northwest of the peninsula and with them formed the great people who styled themselves unitedly Arya, or the noble, to distinguish them from the aborigines whom they subdued and on whose territories they eventually settled. . . .

"At the time when the plot of the Mahβbhβrata was enacted this tribe was situated in the plain of the Doab, and their particular region lying between the Jumna and Sursooty rivers, was called Kurukshetra, or the plain of the Kurus. The capital of this country was Hβstinapura, and here reigned at a period of which we cannot give the exact date a king named Vichitravirya. He was the son of Shantanu and Satyavati; and Bhξshma and Krishna Dwaipayana, the Vyasa, were his half-brothers; the former being his father's, the latter his mother's son. He married two sisters―Amba and Ambalika―but dying shortly after marriage, he left no progeny; and his half-brother, the Vyasa, instigated by divine compassion, married his widow and begat two

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sons, Dhritarβshtra and Pandu. The former had one hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Duryodhana. The latter married firstly Prξtha, or Kuntξ, the daughter of Shura, and secondly Madri. The children of these wives were the five Pandava princes; but as their mortal father, while hunting, had been cursed by a deer to be childless all his life, these children were mystically begotten by different deities. Thus Yudhishthira, Bhξma, and Arjuna were the sons of Prξtha by Dharma, Vayu, and Indra respectively. Nakula was the son of Madri by Nasatya the elder, and Sahadeva by Darsa the younger of the twin Ashwinau, the physicians of the gods. This story would seem to be a fiction invented to give a divine origin to the five heroes of the poem; but however that may be, Duryodhana and his brothers are the leaders of the Kuru, or elder branch of the tribe; and the five Pandava princes those of the Pandava or younger branch.

"Dhritarβshtra was blind, but, although thus incapacitated for governing, he retained the throne, while his son Duryodhana really directed he affairs of the state. . . . he prevailed on his father to banish his cousins,

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the Pandava princes, from the country. After long wanderings and varied hardships, these princes collected their friends around them, formed by the help of many neighboring kings a vast army, and prepared to attack their unjust oppressor, who had in like manner assembled his forces.

The hostile armies meet on the plain of the Kurus. Bhξshma, the half-brother of Vichitravirya, being the oldest warrior among them, has command of the Kuru faction; Bhξma, the second son of Pandu, noted for his strength and prowess, is the general of the other party [Arjuna's]. The scene of our poem now opens and remains throughout the same―the field of battle. In order to introduce to the reader the names of the principal chieftains in each army, Duryodhana is made to approach Drτna, his military preceptor, and name them one by one. The challenge is then suddenly given by Bhξshma, the Kuru general, by blowing his conch; and he is seconded by all his followers. It is returned by Arjuna, who is in the same chariot with the god Krishna, who, in compassion for the persecution he had suffered, had become his intimate friend, and was acting the

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part of a charioteer to him. He is followed by all the generals of the Pandavas. The fight then begins with a volley of arrows from both sides; but when Arjuna perceives it he begs Krishna to draw up the chariot in the space between the two armies while he examines the lines of the enemy. The god does so and points out in those lines the numerous relatives of his friend. Arjuna is horror-struck at the idea of committing fratricide by slaying his near relations, and throws down his bow and arrows, declaring that he would rather be killed without defending himself than fight against them. Krishna replies with the arguments which form the didactic and philosophical doctrines of the work, and endeavors to persuade him that he mistakes in forming such a resolution. Arjuna is eventually overruled. The fight goes on, and the Pandavas defeat their opponents."

This quotation from Thomson's edition gives the student a brief statement of what is more or less mythological and allegorical, but if the story of the Mahβbhβrata be taken as that of Man in his evolutionary development, as I think it ought to be, the whole can be raised from the plane of fable, and

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the student will then have before him an account, to some extent, of that evolution.

Thus looking at it from the Theosophical point of view, the king Dhritarβshtra, is the human body which is acquired by the immortal Monad in order to go through the evolutionary journey; the mortal envelope is brought into existence by means of Tanha, or thirst for life. He is blind because the body without the faculties within is merely senseless matter, and thus is "incapacitated for governing," and some other person is represented in the Mahβbhβrata as being the governor of the state, the nominal king being the body―Dhritarβshtra. As the Theosophical scheme holds that there is a double line of evolution within us, we find that the Kurus spoken of in the poem represent the more material side of those two lines, and the Pandava princes, of whom Arjuna is one, stand for the spiritual side of the stream - that is, Arjuna represents the immortal Spark.

The learned Brahmin Theosophist, Subba Row, says in his Notes on the Bhagavad-Gξtβ (Vide The Theosophist, Vol. VIII, p. 299): "Krishna was intended to represent the Logos. . . and Arjuna, who was called Nara,

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was intended to represent the human monad." Nara also means Man. The alleged celestial origin for the two branches of the family, the Kurus and Pandavas, is in perfect consonance with this, for the body, or Dhritarβshtra, being solely material and the lower plane in which the development takes place, the Kurus and Pandavas are our inheritance from the celestial beings often referred to in Mme. Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine, the one tending towards materiality, the other being spiritual. The Kurus, then, the lower portion of our nature earliest developed, obtain the power on this plane for the time being, and one of them, Duryodhana, "prevails," so that the Pandavas, or the more spiritual parts of our nature, are banished temporarily from the country, that is, from governing Man. "The long wanderings and varied hardships" of the Pandavas are wanderings caused by the necessities of evolution before these better parts are able to make a stand for the purpose of gaining the control in Man's evolutionary struggle. This also has reference to the cyclic rise and fall of nations and the race.

The hostile armies, then, who meet on the plain of the Kurus are these two collections

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of the human faculties and powers, those on one side tending to drag us down, those on the other aspiring towards spiritual illumination. The battle refers not only to the great warfare that mankind as a whole carries on, but also to the struggle which is inevitable as soon as any one unit in the human family resolves to allow his higher nature to govern him in his life. Hence, bearing in mind the suggestion made by Subba Row, we see that Arjuna, called Nara, represents not only Man as a race, but also any individual who resolves upon the task of developing his better nature. What is described as happening in the poem to him will come to every such individual. Opposition from friends and from all the habits he has acquired, and also that which naturally arises from hereditary tendencies, will confront him, and then it will depend upon how he listens to Krishna, who is the Logos shining within and speaking within, whether he will succeed or fail.

With these suggestions the student will find that the mythology and allegory spoken of by Thomson and others are useful instead of being merely ornamental, or, as some think, superfluous and misleading.

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The only cheap edition of the Bhagavad-Gξtβ hitherto within the reach of Theosophical students of limited means has been one which was published in Bombay by Brother Tookeram Tatya, F. T. S., whose efforts in that direction are entitled to the highest praise. But that one was simply a reprint of the first English translation made one hundred years ago by Wilkins. The great attention of late bestowed on the poem by nearly all members of the Theosophical Society in America has created an imperative demand for an edition which shall be at least free from some of the glaring typographical mistakes and blind renderings so frequent in the Wilkins reprint. To meet this demand the present has been made up. It is the result of a careful comparison of all the English editions and of a complete retranslation from the original wherever any obscurity or omission was evident in the various renderings consulted.

The making of a commentary has not been essayed, because it is believed that the Bhagavad-Gξtβ should stand on its own merits without comments, each student being left to himself to see deeper as he advances. The publisher of this edition holds that the poem can

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be read in many different ways, each depending on the view-point taken, e. g., whether it is considered in its application to the individual, or to cosmogenesis, or to the evolution of the Astral world, or the Hierarchies in Nature, or to the moral nature, and so on. To attach a commentary, except such an one as only a sage like Sankaracharya could write, would be audacious, and therefore the poem is given undisfigured.

The Bhagavad-Gξtβ tends to impress upon the individual two things: first, selflessness, and second, action: the studying of and living by it will arouse the belief that there is but one Spirit and not several; that we cannot live for ourselves alone, but must come to realize that there is no such thing as separateness, and no possibility of escaping from the collective Karma of the race to which one belongs, and then, that we must think and act in accordance with such belief.

The poem is held in the highest esteem by all sects in Hindustan except the Mahommedan and Christian. It has been translated into many languages, both Asiatic and European: it is being read to-day by hundreds of sincere Theosophists in every part of the world. To

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those and to all others who truly love their fellowmen, and who aspire to learn and teach the science of devotion, this edition of the Bhagavad-Gξtβ is offered.           
WILLIAM Q. JUDGE
New York, October, 1890.

index

"I established this whole Universe with a single portion of myself,
and remain separate." - Tenth Chapter.

SPACE

The Bhagavad-Gita

The Book of Devotion

______index___

CHAPTER I

THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA
________

OM!

DHRITARASHTRA:
Tell me, O Sanjaya, what the people of my own party and those of Pandu, who are assembled at Kurukshetra resolved upon war have been doing. *

SANJAYA:
King Duryodhana, having just beheld the

—————————————————————————————————————————————
*
The key for reading the Bhagavad-Gita is to be applied to this first verse. If we look at the poem in its application to a man aspiring to devotion, then the battlefield is the body acquired by Karma and Tanha, thirst for life, while the speaker and his party represent the lower self, and the Pandus the Higher Self. But if this and succeeding chapters are regarded from the cosmic standpoint, then the speaker, the plain of Kuru, the generals described in the first chapter, together with their instruments and weapons, are beings, forces, planes, and planets in the universe, of which it would be out of place to treat here. As applied to ourselves, the poem is of greater interest and importance: it opens with the battle inevitable between the higher and lower natures of man, and then, from this viewpoint, Krishna - who is the Higher Self, ― in order to encourage Arjuna, becomes his instructor in philosophy and right ethics, so that he may be fit to fight and conquer.

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army of the Pandus drawn up in battle array, went to his preceptor and spoke these words:

"Behold! O Master, the mighty army of the sons of Pandu drawn up by thy pupil, the clever son of Drupada. In it are warriors with great bows, equal to Bhξma and Arjuna in battle, namely, Yuyudhβna, and Virβta, and Drupada on his great car; Dhrishtaketu, Chekitβna, and the valiant king of Kashξ, and Purujit, and Kuntibhoja, with Shaivya, chief of men; Yudhβmanyu the strong, and Uttamauja the brave; the son of Subhadrβ, and all the sons of Draupadi, too, in their huge chariots. Be acquainted also with the names of those in our party who are most distinguished. I will mention a few of those who are amongst my generals, by way of example. There is thyself, my Preceptor, and Bhξshma, Karna, and Kripa, the conqueror

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in battle, and Aswatthama, and Vikarna, and the son of Soma-datta, with others in vast numbers, who for my service risk their life. They are all of them practiced in the use of arms, armed with divers weapons, and experienced in every mode of fight. This army of ours, which is commanded by Bhξshma, is not sufficient, while their forces, led by Bhξma, are sufficient. Let all the generals, according to their respective divisions, stand at their posts, and one and all resolve Bhξshma to support."

The ancient chief, brother of the grandsire of the Kurus, then, to raise the spirits of the Kuru chief, blew his shell, sounding like the lion's roar; and instantly innumerable shells and other warlike instruments were sounded on all sides, so that the clangor was excessive. At this time Krishna and Arjuna, standing in a splendid chariot drawn by white horses, also sounded their shells, which were of celestial form: the name of the one which Krishna blew was Pβnchajanya, and that of Arjuna was called Deva-datta-"the gift of the Gods." Bhξma, of terrific power, blew his capacious shell, Paundra; and Yudhishthira, the royal son of Kuntξ, sounded Anan-

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ta-Vijaya; Nakula and Sahadeva blew their shells also, the one called Sughosha, the other Manipushpaka. The prince of Kashξ, of the mighty bow; Sikhandο, Dhrishtadyumna. Virΰta, Sβtyaki, of invincible arm; Drupada and the sons of his royal daughter; Krishna, with the son Subhadrΰ, and all the other chiefs and nobles, blew also their respective shells, so that their shrill-sounding voices pierced the hearts of the Kurus and reλchoed with a dreadful noise from heaven to earth.

Then Arjuna whose crest was Hanuman, perceiving that the sons of Dhritarβshtra stood ready to begin the fight , and that the flying of arrows had commenced, having raised his bow, addressed these words to Krishna.

ARJUNA:
I pray thee, Krishna , cause my chariot to be placed between the two armies , that I may behold who are the men that stand ready, anxious to commence the battle: with whom it is I am to fight in this ready field; and who they are that are here assembled to support the evil minded son of Dhritarβshtra in the battle."

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SANJAYA:
Krishna being thus addressed by Arjuna, drove the chariot, and, having caused it to halt in the space between the two armies, bade Arjuna cast his eyes towards the ranks of the Kurus, and behold where stood the aged Bhξshma, and Drτna, with all the chief nobles of their party. Standing there Arjuna surveyed both the armies, and beheld, on either side, grandsires, uncles, cousins, tutors, sons, and brothers, near relations, or bosom friends; and when he had gazed for a while and beheld all his kith and kin drawn up in battle array, he was moved by extreme pity, and, filled with despondency, he thus in sadness spoke:

ARJUNA:
"Now, O Krishna, that I have beheld my kindred thus standing anxious for the fight, my members fail me, my countenance withereth, the hair standeth on end upon my body, and all my frame trembleth with horror! Even Gandiva, my bow, slips from my hand, and my skin is parched and dried up. I am not able to stand; for my mind, as it were, whirleth round, and I behold on all sides ad-

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verse omens. When I shall have destroyed my kindred, shall I longer look for happiness? I wish not for victory, Krishna; I want not pleasure; for what are dominion and the enjoyments of life, or even life itself, when those for whom dominion, pleasure, and enjoyment were to be coveted have abandoned life and fortune, and stand here in the field ready for the battle? Tutors, sons and fathers, grandsires and grandsons, uncles and nephews, cousins, kindred, and friends! Although they would kill me, I wish not to fight them: no, not even for the dominion of the three regions of the universe, much less for this little earth! Having killed the sons of Dhritarβshtra, what pleasure, O thou who art prayed to by mortals, can we enjoy? Would we destroy them, tyrants though they are, sin would take refuge with us. It therefore behooveth us not to kill such near relations as these. How, O Krishna, can we be happy hereafter, when we have been the murderers of our race? What if they, whose minds are depraved by the lust of power, see no sin in the extirpation of their race, no crime in the murder of their friends, is that a reason why we should not resolve to turn away from such a crime―we who abhor

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the sin of extirpating our own kindred? On the destruction of a tribe the ancient virtue of the tribe and family is lost; with the loss of virtue, vice and impiety overwhelm the whole of a race. From the influence of impiety the females of a family grow vicious; and from women that are become vicious are born the spurious caste called Varna Sankar. Corruption of caste is a gate of hell, both for these destroyers of a tribe and for those who survive; and their forefathers, being deprived of the ceremonies of cakes and water offered to their manes, sink into the infernal regions. By the crimes of the destroyers of a tribe and by those who cause confusion of caste, the family virtue and the virtue of a whole tribe are forever done away with; and we have read in sacred writ, O Krishna, that a sojourn in hell awaits those mortals whose generation hath lost its virtue. Woe is me! What a great crime are we prepared to commit! Alas! that from the desire for sovereignty and pleasure we stand here ready to slay our own kin! I would rather patiently suffer that the sons of Dhritarβshtra, with their weapons in their hands, should come upon me, and unopposed, kill me unresisting in the field."

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SANJAYA:
When Arjuna had ceased to speak, he sat down in the chariot between the two armies; and, having put away his bow and arrows, his heart was overwhelmed with despondency.

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the First Chapter, by name―

THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA.
index

CHAPTER II

DEVOTION THROUGH APPLICATION TO THE
SPECULATIVE DOCTRINES
______

SANJAYA:
KRISHNA, beholding him thus influenced by compunction, his eyes overflowing with a flood of tears, and his heart oppressed with deep affliction, addressed him in the following words:

KRISHNA:
"Whence, O Arjuna, cometh upon thee this dejection in matters of difficulty, so unworthy of the honorable, and leading neither to heaven nor to glory? It is disgraceful, contrary to duty, and the foundation of dishonor. Yield not thus to unmanliness, for it ill-becometh one like thee. Abandon, O tormentor of thy foes, this despicable weakness of thy heart and stand up."

ARJUNA:
"How, O slayer of Madhu, shall I with

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my shafts contend in battle against such as Bhξshma and Drτna, who of all men are most worthy of my respect? For it were better to beg my bread about the world than be the murderer of my preceptors, to whom such awful reverence is due. Were I to destroy such friends as these, I should partake of possessions, wealth, and pleasures polluted with their blood. Nor can we tell whether it would be better that we should defeat them, or they us. For those drawn up, angrily confronting us - and after whose death, should they perish by my hand, I would not wish to live - are the sons and people of Dhritarβshtra. As I am of a disposition which is affected by compassion and the fear of doing wrong, I ask thee which is it better to do? Tell me that distinctly! I am thy disciple; wherefore instruct in my duty me who am under thy tuition; for my understanding is confounded by the dictates of my duty, and I see nothing that may assuage the grief which drieth up my faculties, although I were to obtain a kingdom without a rival upon earth, or dominion over the hosts of heaven."

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SANJAYA:
Arjuna having thus spoken to Krishna, became silent, saying: "I shall not fight, O Govinda." Krishna, tenderly smiling, addressed these words to the prince thus standing downcast between the two armies:

KRISHNA:
"Thou grievest for those that may not be lamented, whilst thy sentiments are those of the expounders of the letter of the law. Those who are wise in spiritual things grieve neither for the dead nor for the living. I myself never was not, nor thou, nor all the princes of the earth; nor shall we ever hereafter cease to be. As the lord of this mortal frame experienceth therein infancy, youth, and old age, so in future incarnations will it meet the same. One who is confirmed in this belief is not disturbed by anything that may come to pass. The senses, moving toward their appropriate objects, are producers of heat and cold, pleasure and pain, which come and go and are brief and changeable; these do thou endure, O son of Bharata! For the wise man, whom these disturb not and to whom pain and pleasure

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are the same, is fitted for immortality. There is no existence for that which does not exist, nor is there any non-existence for what exists. By those who see the truth and look into the principles of things, the ultimate characteristic of these both is seen. Learn that He by whom all things were formed is incorruptible, and that no one is able to effect the destruction of IT which is inexhaustible. These finite bodies, which envelope the souls inhabiting them, are said to belong to Him, the eternal, the indestructible, unprovable Spirit, who is in the body: wherefore, O Arjuna, resolve to fight. The man who believeth that it is this Spirit which killeth, and he who thinketh that it may be destroyed, are both alike deceived; for it neither killeth nor is it killed. It is not a thing of which a man may say, 'It hath been, it is about to be, or is to be hereafter'; for it is without birth and meeteth not death; it is ancient, constant, and eternal, and is not slain when this its mortal frame is destroyed. How can the man who believeth that it is incorruptible, eternal, inexhaustible, and without birth, think that it can either kill or cause to be killed? As a man throweth away old garments and putteth on new, even so the dweller in the body, having quitted its old mortal frames, entereth into others which are new. The weapon divideth it not, the fire burneth it not, the water corrupteth it not, the wind drieth it not away; for it is indivisible, inconsumable, incorruptible, and is not to be dried away: it is eternal, universal, permanent, immovable; it is invisible, inconceivable, and unalterable; therefore, knowing it to be thus, thou shouldst not grieve. But whether thou believest it to be of eternal birth and duration, or that it dieth with the body, still thou hast no cause to lament it. Death is certain to all things which are born, and rebirth to all mortals; wherefore it doth not behoove thee to grieve about the inevitable. The antenatal state of beings is unknown; the middle state is evident; and their state after death is not to be discovered. What in this is there to lament? Some regard the indwelling spirit as a wonder, whilst some speak and others hear of it with astonishment; but no one realizes it, although he may have heard it described. This spirit can never be destroyed in the mortal frame which it inhabiteth, hence it is unworthy for thee to be troubled for all these mortals. Cast but thine eyes towards

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the duties of thy particular tribe, and it will ill become thee to tremble. A soldier of the Kshatriya *tribe hath no duty superior to lawful war, and just to thy wish the door of heaven is found open before thee, through this glorious unsought fight which only fortune's favored soldiers may obtain. But if thou wilt not perform the duty of thy calling and fight out the field, thou wilt abandon thy natural duty and thy honor, and be guilty of a crime. Mankind will speak of thy ill fame as infinite, and for one who hath been respected in the world ill fame is worse than death. The generals of the armies will think that thy retirement from the field arose from fear, and even amongst those by whom thou wert wont to be thought great of soul thou shalt become despicable. Thine enemies will speak of thee in words which are unworthy to be spoken, depreciating thy courage and abilities; what can be more dreadful than this! If thou art slain thou shalt attain heaven; if victorious, the world shall be thy reward; wherefore, son of  Kuntξ, arise with determination fixed for the battle. Make pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat, the
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* Kshatriya is the second or military caste of India.

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same to thee, and then prepare for battle, for thus and thus alone shalt thou in action still be free from sin.

"Thus before thee has been set the opinion in accordence with the Sankhya doctrine, speculatively; now hear what it is in the practical, devotional one, by means of which, if fully imbued therewith, thou shalt forever burst the bonds of Karma and rise above them. In this system of Yoga no effort is wasted, nor are there any evil consequences, and even a little of this practice delivereth a man from great risk. In this path there is only one single object, and this of a steady, constant nature; but widely-branched is the faith and infinite are the objects of those who follow not this system.

"The unwise, delighting in the controversies of the Vedas, tainted with worldly lusts, and preferring a transient enjoyment of heaven to eternal absorption, whilst they declare there is no other reward, pronounce, for the attainment of worldly riches and enjoyments, flowery sentences which promise rewards in future births for present action, ordaining also many special ceremonies the fruit of which is merit leading to power and objects of enjoy-

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ment. But those who thus desire riches and enjoyment have no certainty of soul and least hold on meditation. The subject of the Vedas is the assemblage of the three qualities. Be thou free from these qualities, O Arjuna! Be free from the 'pairs of opposites' and constant in the quality of Sattva, free from worldly anxiety and the desire to preserve present possessions, self-centered and uncontrolled by objects of mind or sense. As many benefits as there are in a tank stretching free on all sides, so many are there for a truth-realizing Brahman in all the Vedic rites.

"Let, then, the motive for action be in the action itself, and not in the event. Do not be incited to actions by the hope of their reward, nor let thy life be spent in inaction. Firmly persisting in Yoga, perform thy duty, O Dhananjaya,* and laying aside all desire for any benefit to thyself from action, make the event equal to thee, whether it be success or failure. Equal-mindedness is called Yoga.

"Yet the performance of works is by far inferior to men-
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*
Dhananjaya - despiser of wealth.

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tal devotion, O despiser of wealth. Seek an asylum, then, in this mental devotion, which is knowledge; for the miserable and unhappy are those whose impulse to action is found in its reward. But he who by means of yoga is mentally devoted dismisses alike successful and unsuccessful results, being beyond them; Yoga is skill in the performance of actions: therefore do thou aspire to this devotion. For those who are thus united to knowledge and devoted, who have renounced all reward for their actions, meet no rebirth in this life, and go to that eternal blissful abode which is free from all disease and untouched by troubles.

"When thy heart shall have worked through the snares of delusion, then thou wilt attain to high indifference as to those doctrines which are already taught or which are yet to be taught. When thy mind once liberated from the Vedas shall be fixed immovably in contemplation, then shalt thou attain to devotion."

ARJUNA:
"What, O Keshava,* is the description of that wise and devoted man who is fixed in
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*  Keshava ―he whose rays manifest themselves as omniscience ― a name of Krishna.

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contemplation and confirmed in spiritual knowledge? What may such a sage declare? Where may he dwell? Does he move and act like other men?"

KRISHNA:
"A man is said to be confirmed in spiritual knowledge when he forsaketh every desire which entereth into his heart, and of himself is happy and content in the Self through the Self. His mind is undisturbed in adversity; he is happy and contented in prosperity, and he is a stranger to anxiety, fear, and anger. Such a man is called a Muni.
§ When in every condition he receives each event, whether favorable or unfavorable, with an equal mind which neither likes nor dislikes, his wisdom is established, and, having met good or evil, neither rejoiceth at the one nor is cast down by the other. He is confirmed in spiritual knowledge, when, like the tortoise, he can draw in all his senses and restrain them from their wonted purposes. The hungry man loseth sight of every other object but the gratification of his appetite, and when he is become
—————————————————————————————————————————————
§ Muni - a wise man.

19

acquainted with the Supreme, he loseth all taste for objects of whatever kind. The tumultuous senses and organs hurry away by force the heart even of the wise man who striveth after perfection. Let a man, restraining all these, remain in devotion at rest in me, his true self; for he who hath his senses and organs in control possesses spiritual knowledge.

"He who attendeth to the inclinations of the senses, in them hath a concern; from this concern is created passion, from passion anger, from anger is produced delusion, from delusion a loss of the memory, from the loss of memory loss of discrimination, and from loss of discrimination loss of all! But he who, free from attachment or repulsion for objects, experienceth them through the senses and organs, with his heart obedient to his will, attains to tranquility of thought. And this tranquil state attained, therefrom shall soon result a separation from all troubles; and his mind being thus at ease, fixed upon one object, it embraceth wisdom from all sides. The man whose heart and mind are not at rest is without wisdom or the power of contemplation; who doth not practice reflection, hath no calm; and how can a man without calm ob-

20

tain happiness? The uncontrolled heart, following the dictates of the moving passions, snatcheth away his spiritual knowledge, as the storm the bark upon the raging ocean. Therefore, O great armed one, he is possessed of spiritual knowledge whose senses are withheld from objects of sense. What is night to those who are unenlightened is as day to his gaze; what seems as day is known to him as night, the night of ignorance. Such is the self-governed Sage!

"The man whose desires enter his heart, as waters run into the unswelling passive ocean, which, though ever full, yet does not quit its bed, obtaineth happiness; not he who lusteth in his lusts.

"The man who, having abandoned all desires, acts without covetousness, selfishness, or pride, deeming himself neither actor nor possessor, attains to rest. This, O son of Pritha, is dependence upon the Supreme Spirit, and he who possesseth it goeth no more astray; having obtained it, if therein esablished at the hour of death, he passeth on to Nirvana in the Supreme."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme

21

Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Second Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION THROUGH APPLICATION TO THE
SANKHYA  DOCTRINE.
index

CHAPTER III

DEVOTION THROUGH THE RIGHT PERFORMANCE
OF ACTION
______

ARJUNA:
If according to thy opinion, O giver of all that men ask, knowledge is superior to the practice of deeds, why then dost thou urge me to engage in an undertaking so dreadful as this? Thou, as it were with doubtful speech, confusest my reason; wherefore choose one method amongst them by which I may obtain happiness and explain it unto me."

KRISHNA:
"It hath before been declared by me, O sinless one, that in this world there are two modes of devotion: that of those who follow the Sankhya, or speculative science, which is the exercise of reason in contemplation; and that of the followers of the Yoga school, which is devotion in the performance of action.

"A man enjoyeth not freedom from action

23

from the non-commencement of that which he hath to do; nor doth he obtain happiness from a total abandonment of action. No one ever resteth a moment inactive. Every man is involuntarily urged to act by the qualities which spring from nature. He who remains inert, restraining the senses and organs, yet pondering with his heart upon objects of sense, is called a false pietist of bewildered soul. But he who having subdued all his passions performeth with his active faculties all the duties of life, unconcerned as to their result, is to be esteemed. Do thou perform the proper actions: action is superior to inaction. The journey of thy mortal frame cannot be accomplished by inaction. All actions performed other than as sacrifice unto God make the actor bound by action. Abandon, then, O son of Kuntξ, all selfish motives, and in action perform thy duty for him alone. When in ancient times the lord of creatures had formed mankind, and at the same time appointed his worship, he spoke and said: 'With this worship, pray for increase, and let it be for you Kamaduk, the cow of plenty, on which ye shall depend for the accomplishment of all your wishes. With this nourish the Gods,

24

that the Gods may nourish you; thus mutually nourishing ye shall obtain the highest felicity. The Gods being nourished by worship with sacrifice, will grant you the enjoyment of your wishes. He who enjoyeth what hath been given unto him by them, and offereth not a portion unto them, is even as a thief.' But those who eat not but what is left of the offerings shall be purified of all their transgressions. Those who dress their meat but for themselves eat the bread of sin, being themselves sin incarnate. Beings are nourished by food, food is produced by rain, rain comes from sacrifice, and sacrifice is performed by action. Know that action comes from the Supreme Spirit who is one; wherefore the all-pervading spirit is at all times present in the sacrifice.

"He who, sinfully delighting in the gratification of his passions, doth not cause this wheel thus already set in motion to continue revolving, liveth in vain, O son of Pritha.

"But the man who only taketh delight in the Self within, is satisfied with that and content with that alone, hath no selfish interest in action. He hath no interest either in that which is done or that which is not done; and

25

there is not, in all things which have been created, any object on which he may place dependence. Therefore perform thou that which thou hast to do, at all times unmindful of the event; for the man who doeth that which he hath to do, without attachment to the result, obtaineth the Supreme. Even by action Janaka and others attained perfection. Even if the good of mankind only is considered by thee, the performance of thy duty will be plain; for whatever is practised by the most excellent men, that is also practiced by others. The world follows whatever example they set. There is nothing, O son of Pritha, in the three regions of the universe which it is necessary for me to perform, nor anything possible to obtain which I have not obtained; and yet I am constantly in action. If I were not indefatigable in action, all men would presently follow my example, O son of Pritha. If I did not perform actions these creatures would perish; I should be the cause of confusion of castes, and should have slain all these creatures. O son of Bharata, as the ignorant perform the duties of life from the hope of reward, so the wise man, from the wish to bring the world to duty and bene-

26

fit mankind, should perform his actions without motives of interest. He should not create confusion in the understandings of the ignorant, who are inclined to outward works, but by being himself engaged in action should cause them to act also. All actions are effected by the qualities of nature. The man deluded by ignorance thinks, 'I am the actor.' But he, O strong-armed one! who is acquainted with the nature of the two distinctions of cause and effect, knowing that the qualities act only in the qualities, and that the Self is distinct from them, is not attached in action.

"Those who have not this knowledge are interested in the actions thus brought about by the qualities; and he who is perfectly enlightened should not unsettle those whose discrimination is weak and knowledge incomplete, nor cause them to relax from their duty.

"Throwing every deed on me, and with thy meditation fixed upon the Higher Self, resolve to fight, without expectation, devoid of egotism and free from anguish.

"Those men who constantly follow this my doctrine without reviling it, and with a firm faith, shall be emancipated even by ac-

27

tions; but they who revile it and do not follow it are bewildered in regard to all knowledge, and perish, being devoid of discrimination.

"But the wise man also seeketh for that which is homogeneous with his own nature. All creatures act according to their natures; what, then, will restraint effect? In every purpose of the senses are fixed affection and dislike. A wise man should not fall in the power of these two passions, for they are the enemies of man. It is better to do one's own duty, even though it be devoid of excellence, than to perform another's duty well. It is better to perish in the performance of one's own duty; the duty of another is full of danger."

ARJUNA:
"By what, O descendant of Vrishni, is man propelled to commit offences; seemingly against his will and as if constrained by some secret force?

KRISHNA:
"It is lust which instigates him. It is passion, sprung from the quality of rajas;* in-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Rajas  is one of the three great qualities; the driving power of nature; active and bad.

28

satiable, and full of sin. Know this to be the enemy of man on earth. As the flame is surrounded by smoke, and a mirror by rust, † and as the womb envelopes the foetus, so is the universe surrounded by this passion. By this―the constant enemy of the wise man, formed from desire which rageth like fire and is never to be appeased―is discriminative knowledge surrounded. Its empire is over the senses and organs, the thinking principle and the discriminating faculty also; by means of these it cloudeth discrimination and deludeth the Lord of the body. Therefore, O best of the descendants of Bharata, at the very outset restraining thy senses, thou shouldst conquer this sin which is the destroyer of knowledge and of spiritual discernment.

"The senses and organs are esteemed great, but the thinking self is greater than they. The discriminating principle ‡ is greater than the thinking self, and that which is greater than the discriminating principle is He,§ Thus knowing what is greater than the discriminating principle and strengthening the lower
—————————————————————————————————————————————
†   The burnished metal mirrors are here referred to.
‡   The discriminating principle is Buddhi.
§   "He," the Supreme Spirit, the true Ego.

 

29

by the Higher Self, do thou of mighty arms slay this foe which is formed from desire and is difficult to seize."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Third Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION THROUGH THE RIGHT PERFORMANCE
OF ACTION.
index

CHAPTER IV

DEVOTION THROUGH SPIRITUAL KNOWLEDGE
______

KRISHNA:
This exhaustless doctrine of Yoga I formerly taught unto Vivaswat; * Vivaswat communicated it to Manu
and Manu made it known unto Ikshwaku; ‡ and being thus transmitted from one unto another it was studied by the Rajarshees,§ until at length in the course of time the mighty art was lost, O harasser of thy foes! It is even the same exhaustless, secret, eternal doctrine I have this day communicated unto thee because thou art my devotee and my friend."

ARJUNA:
Seeing that thy birth is posterior to the
—————————————————————————————————————————————
*Vivaswat, the sun, first manifestation of divine wisdom at the beginning of evolution.
Manu, generic title for the reigning spirit of the sensuous universe; the present one being Vaivashwata Manu.
‡ Ikshwaku, the founder of the Indian solar dynasty.
§  Rajarshees, Royal Sages.
 

31

life of Ikshwaku, how am I to understand that thou wert in the beginning the teacher of this doctrine?"

KRISHNA:
"Both I and thou have passed through many births, O harasser of thy foes! Mine are known unto me, but thou knowest not of thine.

"Even though myself unborn, of changeless essence, and the lord of all existence, yet in presiding over nature - which is mine - I am born but through my own maya, * the mystic power of self-ideation, the eternal thought in the eternal mind. I produce myself among creatures, O son of Bharata, whenever there is a decline of virtue and an insurrection of vice and injustice in the world; and thus I incarnate from age to age for the preservation of the just, the destruction of the wicked, and the establishment of righteousness. Whoever, O Arjuna, knoweth my divine birth and actions to be even so doth not
—————————————————————————————————————————————
*Maya, Illusion.
 See also the Varaha Upanishad of Krishna-Yajur Veda, viz; "The whole of the universe is evolved through Sankalpa [thought or ideation] alone; it is only through Sankalpa that the universe retains its appearance."

32

 upon quitting his mortal frame enter into another, for he entereth into me. Many who were free from craving, fear, and anger, filled with my spirit, and who depended upon me, having been purified by the ascetic fire of knowledge, have entered into my being. In whatever way men approach me, in that way do I assist them; but whatever the path taken by mankind, that path is mine, O son of Pritha. Those who wish for success to their works in this life sacrifice to the gods; and in this world success from their actions soon cometh to pass.

"Mankind was created by me of four castes distinct in their principles and in their duties according to the natural distribution of the actions and qualities. * Know me, then, although changeless and not acting, to be the author of this. Actions affect me not, nor have I any expectations from the fruits of actions. He who comprehendeth me to be thus is not held by the bonds of action to rebirth. The ancients who longed for eternal salvation, having discovered this, still performed works.
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This refers to the four great castes of India; the Brahmin, the soldier, the merchant, and the servant. Such division is plainly evident in every country, even when not named as such.

33

Wherefore perform thou works even as they were performed by the ancients in former times.

"Even sages have been deluded as to what is action and what inaction; therefore I shall explain to thee what is action by a knowledge of which thou shalt be liberated from evil. One must learn well what is action to be performed, what is not to be, and what is inaction. The path of action is obscure. That man who sees inaction in action and action in inaction is wise among men; he is a true devotee and a perfect performer of all action.

"Those who have spiritual discrimination call him wise whose undertakings are all free from desire, for his actions are consumed in the fire of knowledge. He abandoneth the desire to see a reward for his actions, is free, contented, and upon nothing dependeth, and although engaged in action he really doeth nothing; he is not solicitous of results, with mind and body subdued and being above enjoyment from objects, doing with the body alone the acts of the body, he does not subject himself to rebirth. He is contented with whatever he receives fortuitously, if free from the influence of 'the pairs of opposites' and

34

from envy, the same in success and failure; even though he act he is not bound by the bonds of action. All the actions of such a man who is free from self-interest, who is devoted, with heart set upon spiritual knowledge, and whose acts are sacrifices for the sake of the Supreme, are dissolved and left without effect on him. The Supreme Spirit is the act of offering, the Supreme Spirit is the sacrificial butter offered in the fire which is the Supreme Spirit, and unto the Supreme Spirit goeth he who maketh the Supreme spirit the object of his meditation in performing his actions.

"Some devotees give sacrifice to the Gods, while others, lighting the subtler fire of the Supreme Spirit offer up themselves; still others make sacrifice with the senses, beginning with hearing, in the fire of self-restraint, and some give up all sense-delighting sounds, and others again, illuminated by spiritual knowledge, sacrifice all the functions of the senses and vitality in the fire of devotion through self-constraint. There are also those who perform sacrifice by wealth given in alms, by mortification, by devotion, and by silent study. Some sacrifice the up-breathing in the down-breath-

35

ing and the down-breathing in the up-breathing by blocking up the channels of inspiration and expiration; and others by stopping the movements of both the life breaths; still others by abstaining from food sacrifice life in their life.

"All these different kinds of worshippers are by their sacrifices purified from their sins; but they who partake of the perfection of spiritual knowledge arising from such sacrifices pass into the eternal Supreme Spirit. But for him who maketh no sacrifices there is no part nor lot in this world; how then shall he share in the other, O best of the Kurus?

"All these sacrifices of so many kinds are displayed in the sight of God; know that they all spring from action, and, comprehending this, thou shalt obtain an eternal release. O harasser of thy foes, the sacrifice through spiritual knowledge is superior to sacrifice made with material things; every action without exception is comprehended in spiritual knowledge, O son of Pritha. Seek this wisdom by doing service, by strong search, by questions, and by humility; the wise who see the truth will communicate it unto thee, and knowing which thou shalt never again fall

36

into error, O son of Bharata. By this knowledge thou shalt see all things and creatures whatsoever in thyself and then in me. Even if thou wert the greatest of all sinners, thou shalt be able to cross over all sins in the bark of spiritual knowledge. As the natural fire, O Arjuna, reduceth fuel to ashes, so does the fire of knowledge reduce all actions to ashes. There is no purifier in this world to be compared to spiritual knowledge; and he who is perfected in devotion findeth spiritual knowledge springing up spontaneously in himself in the progress of time. The man who restraineth the senses and organs and hath faith obtaineth spiritual knowledge, and having obtained it he soon reacheth supreme tranquility; but the ignorant, those full of doubt and without faith, are lost. The man of doubtful mind hath no happiness either in this world or in the next or in any other. No actions bind that man who through spiritual discrimination hath renounced action and cut asunder all doubt by knowledge, O despiser of wealth. Wherefore, O son of Bharata, having cut asunder with the sword of spiritual knowledge this doubt which existeth in thy

37

heart, engage in the performance of action. Arise!"

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Fourth Chapter, by name ―

DEVOTION THROUGH SPIRITUAL
KNOWLEDGE
index

CHAPTER V

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF RENUNCIATION OF ACTION
______

ARJUNA:
At one time, O Krishna, thou praisest the renunciation of action, and yet again its right performance. Tell me with certainty which of the two is better?"

KRISHNA:
"Renunciation of action and devotion through action are both means of final emancipation, but of these two devotion through action is better than renunciation. He is considered to be an ascetic* who seeks nothing and nothing rejects, being free from the influence of the 'pairs of opposites,'
O thou of mighty arms; without trouble he is released from the bonds forged by action. Children only and not the wise speak of renunciation of action ‡ and of right performance of ac-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* That is, one who has really renounced.
That is, cold and heat, pleasure and pain, misery and happiness, etc.
‡ Sankhya school.

39

tion * as being different. He who perfectly practices the one receives the fruits of both, and the place which is gained by the renouncer of action is also attained by him who is devoted in action. That man seeth with clear sight who seeth that the Sankhya and the Yoga doctrines are identical. But to attain to true renunciation of action without devotion through action is difficult, O thou of mighty arms; while the devotee who is engaged in the right practice of his duties approacheth the Supreme Spirit in no long time. The man of purified heart, having his body fully controlled, his senses restrained, and for whom the only self is the Self of all creatures, is not tainted although performing actions. The devotee who knows the divine truth thinketh 'I am doing nothing' in seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing; even when speaking, letting go or taking, opening or closing his eyes, he sayeth, 'the senses and organs move by natural impulse to their appropriate objects.' Whoever in acting dedicates his actions to the Supreme Spirit and puts aside all selfish in-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Yoga school.
  Nirvana, or emancipation.

40

terest in their result is untouched by sin, even as the leaf of the lotus is unaffected by the waters. The truly devoted, for the purification of the heart, perform actions with their bodies, their minds, their understanding, and their senses, putting away all self-interest. The man who is devoted and not attached to the fruit of his actions obtains tranquility; whilst he who through desire has attachment for the fruit of action is bound down thereby. * The self-restrained sage having with his heart renounced all actions, dwells at rest in the 'nine gate city of his abode,' neither acting nor causing to act. ‡

"The Lord of the world creates neither the faculty of acting, nor actions, nor the connection between action and its fruits; but nature prevaileth in these. The Lord receives no man's deeds, be they sinful or full of
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This refers not only to the effect on the man now, in life, but also to the "binding to rebirth" which such action causes.
That is, the body as having nine openings through which impressions are received, viz,: eyes, ears, mouth, nose, etc.
‡ The Sage who has united himself to true consciousness remains in the body for the benefit of mankind.

41

merit. * The truth is obscured by that which is not true, and therefore all creatures are led astray. But in those for whom knowledge of the true Self has dispersed ignorance, the Supreme, as if lighted by the sun, is revealed. Those whose souls are in the Spirit, whose asylum is in it, who are intent on it and purified by knowledge from all sins, go to that place from which there is no return.

"The illuminated sage regards with equal mind an illuminated, selfless Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and even an outcast who eats the flesh of dogs. Those who thus preserve an equal mind gain heaven even in this life, for the Supreme is free from sin and equal minded; therefore they rest in the Supreme Spirit. The man who knoweth the Supreme Spirit, who is not deluded, and who is fixed on him, doth not rejoice at obtaining what is pleasant, nor grieve when meeting what is unpleasant. He whose heart is not attached to
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* In order to understand this clearly it is necessary to remember that in the Vedic philosophy it is held that all actions, whether they be good or bad, are brought about by the three great qualities―sattva, rajas, tamas―inherent in all throughout evolution. This is set forth at length in the 7th Chapter, and in Chapter 13 the manner in which those qualities show themselves is fully given.

42

objects of sense finds pleasure within himself, and, through devotion, united with the Supreme, enjoys imperishable bliss. For those enjoyments which arise through the contact of the senses with external objects are wombs of pain, since they have a beginning and an end; O son of Kuntξ, the wise man delighteth not in these. He who, while living in this world and before the liberation of the soul from the body, can resist the impulse arising from desire and anger is a devotee and blessιd. The man who is happy within himself, who is illuminated within, is a devotee, and partaking of the nature of the Supreme Spirit, he is merged in it. Such illuminated sages whose sins are exhausted, who are free from delusion, who have their senses and organs under control, and devoted to the good of all creatures, obtain assimilation with the Supreme Spirit. * Assimilation with the Supreme Spirit is on both sides of death for those who are free from desire and anger, temperate, of thoughts restrained; and who are acquainted with the true Self.

"The anchorite who shutteth his placid soul away from all sense of touch, with gaze
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* That is, direct knowledge of Self.

43

fixed between his brows; who maketh the breath to pass through both his nostrils with evenness alike in inspiration and expiration, whose senses and organs together with his heart and understanding are under control, and who hath set his heart upon liberation and is ever free from desire and anger, is emancipated from birth and death even in this life. Knowing that I, the great Lord of all worlds, am the enjoyer of all sacrifices and penances and the friend of all creatures, he shall obtain me and be blessed."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Fifth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF RENUNCIATION OF
ACTION
index

CHAPTER VI

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SELF-RESTRAINT
______

KRISHNA:
He who, unattached to the fruit of his actions, performeth such actions as should be done is both a renouncer * of action and a devotee
 of right action; not he who liveth without kindling the sacrificial fire and without ceremonies. ‡ Know, O son of Pandu, that what they call Sannyas or a forsaking of action is the same as Yoga or the practice of devotion. No one without having previously renounced all intentions can be devoted. Action is said to be the means by which the wise man who is desirous of mounting to meditation may reach thereto; so cessation from action is said to be the means for him who hath reached to meditation. When he hath renounced all intentions and is devoid of attachment to action in regard to objects of
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* A Sannyasi.
  A Yogi
‡  Those ceremonies prescribed by the Brahmanical law.

45

sense, then he is called one who hath ascended to meditation. He should raise the self by the Self; let him not suffer the Self to be lowered; for Self is the friend of self, and in like manner, self is its own enemy. *Self is the friend of the man who is self-conquered; so self like a foe hath enmity to him who is not self-conquered. The Self of the man who is self-subdued and free from desire and anger is intent on the Supreme Self in heat and cold, in pain and pleasure, in honor and ignominy. The man who hath spiritual knowledge and discernment, who standeth upon the pinnacle, and hath subdued the senses, to whom gold and stone are the same, is said to be devoted. And he is esteemed among all who, whether amongst his friends and companions, in the midst of enemies or those who stand aloof or remain neutral, with those who love and those who hate, and in the company of sinners or the righteous, is of equal mind.

"He who has attained to meditation should constantly strive to stay at rest in the Supreme,
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* In this play upon "self" the Higher and the lower self are meant, in that the lower is the enemy of the Higher through its resistance to true development; and the lower self is at the same time the enemy of its own best interests through its downward tendency.

46

remaining in solitude and seclusion, having his body and his thoughts under control, without possessions and free from hope. He should in an undefiled spot place his seat, firm, neither too high nor too low, and made of kusa grass which is covered with a skin and a cloth. * There, for the self's purification he should practice meditation with his mind fixed on one point, the modifications of the thinking principle controlled and the action of the senses and organs restrained. Keeping his body, head, and neck firm and erect, with mind determined, and gaze directed to the tip of his nose without looking in any direction, with heart at peace and free from fear, the Yogee should remain, settled in the vow of a Brahmacharya, his thoughts controlled, and heart fixed on me. The devotee of controlled mind who thus always bringeth his heart to rest in the Supreme reacheth that
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* These directions are for those hermits who have retired from the world. Many of the translators have variously construed the text; one reads that the devotee has "only skin and sheet to cover him and grass to lie upon"; another that "his goods are a cloth and deerskin and kusa grass." "Those who know" say that this is a description of a magnetically arranged seat and that kusa grass is laid on the ground, the skin on the grass, and the cloth on the skin. Philological discussion will never decide the point.

47

tranquility, the supreme assimilation with me.

"This divine discipline, Arjuna, is not to be attained by the man who eateth more than enough or too little, nor by him who hath a habit of sleeping much, nor by him who is given to overwatching. The meditation which destroyeth pain is produced in him who is moderate in eating and in recreation, of moderate exertion in his actions, and regulated in sleeping and waking. When the man, so living, centers his heart in the true Self and is exempt from attachment to all desires, he is said to have attained to Yoga. Of the sage of self-centered heart, at rest and free from attachment to desires, the simile is recorded, 'as a lamp which is sheltered from the wind flickereth not.' When regulated by the practice of yoga and at rest, seeing the self by the self, he is contented; when he becometh acquainted with that boundless bliss which is not connected with objects of the senses, and being where he is not moved from the reality; *having gained which he considereth no other superior to it, and in which,
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* "Reality," Nirvana and also complete realization of the True and the disappearance of the illusion as to objects and separateness.

48

being fixed, he is not moved even by the greatest grief; know that this disconnection from union with pain is distinguished as yoga, spiritual union or devotion, which is to be striven after by a man with faith and steadfastly.

"When he hath abandoned every desire that ariseth from the imagination and subdued with the mind the senses and organs which impel to action in every direction, being possessed of patience, he by degrees finds rest; and, having fixed his mind at rest in the true Self, he should think of nothing else. To whatsoever object the inconstant mind goeth out he should subdue it, bring it back, and place it upon the Spirit. Supreme bliss surely cometh to the sage whose mind is thus at peace; whose passions and desires are thus subdued; who is thus in the true Self and free from sin. He who is thus devoted and free from sin obtaineth without hindrance the highest bliss―union with the Supreme Spirit. The man who is endued with this devotion and who seeth the unity of all things perceiveth the Supreme Soul in all things and all things in the Supreme Soul. He who seeth me in all things and all things in me looseneth not

49

his hold on me and I forsake him not. And whosoever, believing in spiritual unity, worshipeth me who am in all things, dwelleth with me in whatsoever condition he may be. He, O Arjuna, who by the similitude found in himself seeth but one essence in all things, whether they be evil or good, is considered to be the most excellent devotee."

ARJUNA:
"O slayer of Madhu, * on account of the restlessness of the mind, I do not perceive any possibility of steady continuance in this yoga of equanimity which thou hast declared. For indeed, O Krishna, the mind is full of agitation, turbulent, strong, and obstinate. I believe the restraint of it to be as difficult as that of the wind."

KRISHNA:
"Without doubt, O thou of mighty arms, the mind is restless and hard to restrain; but it may be restrained, O son of Kuntξ, by practice and absence of desire. Yet in my opinion this divine discipline called yoga is very diffi-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Madhu; a daitya or demon slain by Krishna, and representing the quality of passion in nature.

50

cult for one who hath not his soul in his own control; yet it may be acquired through proper means and by one who is assiduous and controlleth his heart."

ARJUNA:
"What end, O Krishna, doth that man attain who, although having faith, hath not attained to perfection in his devotion because his unsubdued mind wandered from the discipline? Doth he, fallen from both, * like a broken cloud without any support,
become destroyed, O strong-armed one, being deluded in the path of the Supreme Spirit? Thou Krishna, shouldst completely dispel this doubt for me, for there is none other to be found able to remove it."

KRISHNA:
"Such a man, O son of Pritha, doth not perish here or hereafter. For never to an evil
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* "From both" here means the good Karma resulting from good deeds and spiritual knowledge acquired through yoga, or heaven and emancipation.
 "Without any support" refers to the support or sanction contained in the Brahmanical law in its promises to him who keeps it, for he who practices yoga is not abiding by the promises of the law, which are for those who obey that law and refrain from yoga.

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place goeth one who doeth good. The man whose devotion has been broken off by death goeth to the regions of the righteous, * where he dwells for an immensity of years and is then born again on earth in a pure and fortunate family; or even in a family of those who are spiritually illuminated. But such a rebirth into this life as this last is more difficult to obtain. Being thus born again he comes in contact with the knowledge which belonged to him in his former body, and from that time he struggles more diligently towards perfection, O son of Kuru. For even unwittingly, by reason of that past practice, he is led and works on. Even if only a mere enquirer, he reaches beyond the word of the Vedas. But the devotee who, striving with all his might, obtaineth perfection because of efforts continued through many births, goeth to the supreme goal. The man of meditation as thus described is superior to the man of penance and to the man of learning and also to the man of action; wherefore, O Arjuna, resolve thou to become a man of meditation. But of all devotees he is considered by me as the most
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* That is, Devachan.
Madhusudana says this means in the family of a king or emperor.

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devoted who, with heart fixed on me, full of faith, worships me."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Sixth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SELF-RESTRAINT
index

CHAPTER VII

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT
______

KRISHNA:
Hear, O son of Pritha, how with heart fixed on me, practicing meditation and taking me as thy refuge, thou shalt know me completely. I will instruct thee fully in this knowledge and in its realization, which, having learned, there remains nothing else to be known.

"Among thousands of mortals a single one perhaps strives for perfection, and among those so striving perhaps a single one knows me as I am. Earth, water, fire, air, and akβsa, Manas, Buddhi, and Ahankara is the eightfold division of my nature. It is inferior; know that my superior nature is different and is the knower; by it the universe is sustained; learn that the whole of creation springs from this too as from a womb; I am the cause, I am the production and the dissolution of the whole universe. There is none superior to me, O conqueror of wealth, and all things hang

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on me as precious gems upon a string. I am the taste in water, O son of Kuntξ, the light in the sun and moon, the mystic syllable OM in all the Vedas, sound in space, the masculine essence in men, the sweet smell in the earth, and the brightness in the fire. In all creatures I am the life, and the power of concentration in those whose minds are on the spirit. Know me, O son of Pritha, as the eternal seed of all creatures. I am the wisdom * of the wise and the strength of the strong. And I am the power of the strong who in action are free from desire and longing; in all creatures I am desire regulated by moral fitness. Know also that the dispositions arising from the three qualities, sattva, rajas, and tamas, are from me; they are in me, but I am not in them. The whole world, being deluded by these dispositions which are born of the three qualities, knoweth not me distinct from them, supreme, imperishable. For this my divine illusive power, acting through the natural qualities, is difficult to surmount, and those only can surmount it who have recourse to me alone. The wicked among men, the deluded and the low-minded, deprived of spiritual perception by
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This means here the principle "Buddhi."

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this illusion, and inclining toward demoniacal dispositions, do not have recourse to me.

"Four classes of men who work righteousness worship me, O Arjuna; those who are afflicted, the searchers for truth, those who desire possessions, and the wise, O son of Bharata. Of these the best is the one possessed of spiritual knowledge, who is always devoted to me. I am extremely dear to the wise man, and he is dear unto me. Excellent indeed are all these, but the spiritually wise is verily myself, because with heart at peace he is upon the road that leadeth to the highest path, which is even myself. After many births the spiritually wise findeth me as the Vasudeva who is all this, for such an one of great soul * is difficult to meet. Those who through diversity of desires are deprived of spiritual wisdom adopt particular rites subordinated to their own natures, and worship other Gods. In whatever form a devotee desires with faith to worship, it is I alone who inspire him with constancy therein, and depending on that faith he seeks the propitiation of that God, obtaining the object of his
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* In the original the word is "Mahatma."

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wishes as is ordained by me alone. But the reward of such short-sighted men is temporary. Those who worship the Gods go to the Gods, and those who worship me come unto me. The ignorant, being unacquainted with my supreme condition which is superior to all things and exempt from decay, believe me who am unmanifested to exist in a visible form. Enveloped by my magic illusion I am not visible to the world; therefore the world doth not recognize me the unborn and exhaustless. I know, O Arjuna, all creatures that have been, that are present, as well as all that shall hereafter be, but no one knows me. At the time of birth, O son of Bharata, all beings fall into error by reason of the delusion of the opposites which springs from liking and disliking, O harasser of thy foes. But those men of righteous lives whose sins have ceased, being free from this delusion of the 'pairs of opposites,' firmly settled in faith, worship me. They who depend on me, and labor for deliverance from birth and death know Brahmβ, the whole Adhyβtma, and all Karma. Those who rest in me, knowing me to be the Adhibhϋta, the Adhidaivata, and

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the Adhiyajna, know me also at the time of death."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Seventh Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT.
index

CHAPTER VIII

DEVOTION TO THE OMNIPRESENT SPIRIT NAMED AS OM
______

ARJUNA:
What is that Brahman, what is Adhyβtma, and what, O best of men! is Karma? What also is Adhibhϋta, and what Adhidaivata ? Who, too, is Adhiyajna here, in this body, and how therein, O slayer of Madhu? Tell me also how men who are fixed in meditation are to know thee at the hour of death?"

KRISHNA:
"Brahman the Supreme is the exhaustless. Adhyβtma is the name of my being manifesting as the Individual Self. Karma is the emanation which causes the existence and reproduction of creatures. * Adhibhϋta is the Supreme Spirit dwelling in all elemental nature through the mysterious power of nature's illusion. Adhidaivata is the Purusha, the
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Karma here is, so to say, the action of the Supreme which is seen in manifestation throughout the evolution of the objective worlds.

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Spiritual Person, and Adhiyajna is myself in this body, O best of embodied men. Whoever at the hour of death abandoneth the body, fixed in meditation upon me, without doubt goeth to me. Whoso in consequence of constant meditation on any particular form thinketh upon it when quitting his mortal shape, even to that doth he go, O son of Kuntξ. Therefore at all times meditate only on me and fight. Thy mind and Buddhi being placed on me alone, thou shalt without doubt come to me. The man whose heart abides in me alone, wandering to no other object, shall also by meditation on the Supreme Spirit go to it, O son of Pritha. Whosoever shall meditate upon the All-Wise which is without beginning, the Supreme Ruler, the smallest of the small, the Supporter of all, whose form is incomprehensible, bright as the sun beyond the darkness; with mind undeviating, united to devotion, and by the power of meditation concentrated at the hour of death, with his vital powers placed between the eyebrows, attains to that Supreme Divine Spirit.

"I will now make known to thee that path which the learned in the Vedas call inde-

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structible, into which enter those who are free from attachments, and is followed by those desirous of leading the life of a Brahmacharya * laboring for salvation. He who closeth all the doors of his senses, imprisoneth his mind in his heart, fixeth his vital powers in his head, standing firm in meditation, repeating the monosyllable OM, and thus continues when he is quitting the body, goeth to the supreme goal. He who, with heart undiverted to any other object, meditates constantly and through the whole of life on me shall surely attain to me, O son of Pritha. Those great-souled ones who have attained to supreme perfection come unto me and no more incur rebirths rapidly revolving, which are mansions of pain and sorrow.

"All worlds up to that of Brahman are subject to rebirth again and again, but they, O son of Kuntξ, who reach to me have no rebirth. Those who are acquainted with day and night know that the day of Brahmβ is
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* Brahmacharya vow is a vow to live a life of religious study and asceticism - "following Brahma."
This refers to those who have acquired knowledge of the ultimate divisions of time, a power which is ascribed to the perfect yogi in Patanjali's Yoga Philosophy.

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a thousand revolutions of the yugas and that his night extendeth for a thousand more. At the coming on of that day all things issue forth from the unmanifested into manifestation, so on the approach of that night they merge again into the unmanifested. This collection of existing things having thus come forth, is dissolved at the approach of the night, O son of Pritha; and now again on the coming of the day it emanates spontaneously. But there is that which upon the dissolution of all things else is not destroyed; it is indivisible, indestructible, and of another nature from the visible. That called the unmanifested and exhaustless is called the supreme goal, which having once attained they never more return - it is my supreme abode. This Supreme, O son of Pritha, within whom all creatures are included and by whom all this is pervaded, may be attained by a devotion which is intent on him alone.

"I will now declare to thee, O best of the Bharatas, at what time yogis dying obtain freedom from or subjection to rebirth. Fire, light, day, the fortnight of the waxing moon, six months of the sun's northern course―

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going then and knowing the Supreme Spirit, men go to the Supreme. But those who depart in smoke, at night, during the fortnight of the waning moon, and while the sun is in the path of his southern journey, proceed for a while to the regions of the moon and again return to mortal birth. These two, light and darkness, are the world's eternal ways; by one a man goes not to return, by the other he cometh back again upon earth. No devotee, O son of Pritha, who knoweth these two paths is ever deluded; wherefore, O Arjuna, at all times be thou fixed in devotion. * The man of meditation who knoweth all this reaches beyond whatever rewards are promised in the Vedas or that result from sacrifices or austerities or from gifts of charity, and goeth to the supreme, the highest place."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the collo-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* The paragraph up to here is thought by some European Sanscritists to be an interpolation, but that view is not held by all, nor is it accepted by the Hindus.

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quy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Eighth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION TO THE OMNIPRESENT SPIRIT NAMED AS OM.
index

CHAPTER IX

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE KINGLY KNOWLEDGE
AND THE KINGLY MYSTERY
______

KRISHNA:
Unto thee who findeth no fault I will now make known this most mysterious knowledge, coupled with a realization of it, which having known thou shalt be delivered from evil. This is the royal knowledge, the royal mystery, the most excellent purifier, clearly comprehensible, not opposed to sacred law, easy to perform, and inexhaustible. These who are unbelievers in this truth, O harasser of thy foes, find me not, but revolving in rebirth return to this world, the mansion of death.

"All this universe is pervaded by me in my invisible form; all things exist in me, but I do not exist in them. Nor are all things in me; behold this my divine mystery: myself causing things to exist and supporting them all but dwelling not in them. Understand that all things are in me even as the mighty

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air which passes everywhere is in space. O son of Kuntξ, at the end of a kalpa all things return unto my nature, and then again at the beginning of another kalpa I cause them to evolve again. Taking control of my own nature I emanate again and again this whole assemblage of beings, without their will, by the power of the material essence. * These acts do not bind me, O conqueror of wealth, because I am as one who sitteth indifferent, uninterested in those works. By reason of my supervision nature produceth the animate and inanimate universe; it is through this cause, O son of Kuntξ, that the universe revolveth.

"The deluded despise me in human form, being unacquainted with my real nature as Lord of all things. They are of vain hopes, deluded in action, in reason and in knowledge, inclining to demoniac and deceitful principles. But those great of soul, partaking of the godlike nature, knowing me to be the imperishable principle of all things, worship me, diverted to nothing else. Fixed in un-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* That is to say, by the power of "prakriti."
This reads that "they are inclined to the nature of the asuras and rakshasas," a class of evil elementals of beings, or, as some say, "of the nature of the very low constituents of nature."

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broken vows they worship, everywhere proclaiming me and bowing down to me. Others with the sacrifice of knowledge in other ways worship me as indivisible, as separable, as the Spirit of the universe. I am the sacrifice and sacrificial rite; I am the libation offered to ancestors, and the spices; I am the sacred formula and the fire; I am the food and the sacrificial butter; I am the father and the mother of this universe, the grandsire and the preserver; I am the Holy One, the object of knowledge, the mystic purifying syllable OM, the Rik, the Saman, the Yajur, and all the Vedas. I am the goal, the Comforter, the Lord, the Witness, the resting-place, the asylum and the Friend; I am the origin and the dissolution, the receptacle, the storehouse, and the eternal seed. I cause light and heat and rain; I now draw in and now let forth; I am death and immortality; I am the cause unseen and the visible effect. Those enlightened in the three Vedas, offering sacrifices to me and obtaining sanctification from drinking the soma juice, * petition me for heaven;
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* Among the Hindus the drinking of the soma at the end of a sacrifice is an act of great merit, with its analogy in the Christian faith in the drinking of the communion wine.

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thus they attain the region of Indra,* the prince of celestial beings, and there feast upon celestial food and are gratified with heavenly enjoyments. And they, having enjoyed that spacious heaven for a period in proportion to their merits, sink back into this mortal world where they are born again as soon as their stock of merit is exhausted; thus those who long for the accomplishment of desires, following the Vedas, obtain a happiness which comes and goes. But for those who, thinking of me as identical with all, constantly worship me, I bear the burden of the responsibility of their happiness. And even those also who worship other gods with a firm faith in doing so, involuntarily worship me, too, O son of Kuntξ, albeit in ignorance. I am he who is the Lord of all sacrifices, and am also their enjoyer, but they do not understand me truly and therefore they fall from heaven. Those who devote themselves to the gods go to the gods; the worshippers of the pitris go to the pitris; those who worship the evil
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* "The region of Indra" is the highest of the celestial spheres. It is the devachan of theosophical literature, for Indra is the prince of the celestial beings who abide in deva-sthan.

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spirits * go to them, and my worshippers come to me. I accept and enjoy the offerings of the humble soul who in his worship with a pure heart offereth a leaf, a flower, or fruit, or water unto me. Whatever thou doest, O son of Kuntξ, whatever thou eatest, whatever thou sacrificest, whatever thou givest, whatever mortification thou performest, commit each unto me. Thus thou shalt be delivered from the good and evil experiences which are the bonds of action; and thy heart being joined to renunciation and to the practice of action, thou shalt come to me. I am the same to all creatures; I know not hatred nor favor; but those who serve me with love dwell in me and I in them. Even if the man of most evil ways worship me with exclusive devotion, he is to be considered as righteous, for he hath judged aright. Such a man soon becometh of a righteous soul and obtaineth perpetual happiness. I swear, O son of Kuntξ, that he who worships me never perisheth. Those even who may be of the womb of sin,
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* These evil spirits are the Bhutas, and are the same as the so-called spirits of the dead―the shells - worshipped or run after at spiritualistic seances.

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women,  vaisyas, and sudras,* shall tread the highest path if they take sanctuary with me. How much more, then, holy brahmans and devotees of kingly race! Having obtained this finite, joyless world, worship me. Serve me, fix heart and mind on me, be my servant, my adorer, prostrate thyself before me, and thus, united unto me, at rest, thou shalt go unto me."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Ninth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE KINGLY
KNOWLEDGE AND THE KINGLY
MYSTERY
 

—————————————————————————————————————————————
This may seem strange to those who have been born in Christendom, and perhaps appear to be testimony to harsh views on the part of Hindu sages respecting women, but in the Bible the same thing is to be found and even worse, where in I Tim. 2, 11-15, it is declared that the woman shall be saved through her husband, and that she must be subservient.
 * Vaisyas and sudras are the two lower castes, or merchants and servitors.
 

index

CHAPTER X

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE UNIVERSAL DIVINE
PERFECTIONS
______

KRISHNA:
Hear again, O thou of mighty arms, my supreme words, which unto thee who art well pleased I will declare because I am anxious for thy welfare.

"Neither the assemblage of the Gods nor the Adept Kings know my origin, because I am the origin of all the Gods and of the Adepts. Whosoever knoweth me to be the mighty Ruler of the universe and without birth or beginning, he among men, undeluded, shall be liberated from all his sins. Subtle perception, spiritual knowledge, right judgment, patience, truth, self-mastery; pleasure and pain, prosperity and adversity; birth and death, danger and security, fear and equanimity, satisfaction, restraint of body and mind, alms-giving, inoffensiveness, zeal and glory and ignominy, all these the various dispositions of creatures come from me. So in former days the seven great Sages and the

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four Manus who are of my nature were born of my mind, and from them sprang this world. He who knoweth perfectly this permanence and mystic faculty of mine becometh without doubt possessed of unshaken faith. I am the origin of all; all things proceed from me; believing me to be thus, the wise gifted with spiritual wisdom worship me; their very hearts and minds are in me; enlightening one another and constantly speaking of me, they are full of enjoyment and satisfaction. To them thus always devoted to me, who worship me with love, I give that mental devotion by which they come to me. For them do I out of my compassion, standing within their hearts, destroy the darkness which springs from ignorance by the brilliant lamp of spiritual discernment."

ARJUNA:
"Thou art Parabrahm! * the supreme abode, the great Purification; thou art the Eternal Presence, the divine Being, before all other Gods, holy, primeval, all-pervading, without beginning! Thus thou art declared by all the Sages - by Narada, Asita, Devala,
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* Beyond Brahma.

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Vyasa, and thou thyself now doth say the same. I firmly believe all that thou, O Keshava, sayest unto me; for neither Gods nor demons comprehend thy manifestations. Thou alone knowest thyself by thy Self, Supreme Spirit, Creator and Master of all that lives, God of Gods, and Lord of all the universe! Thou alone can fully declare thy divine powers by which thou hast pervaded and continueth to pervade these worlds. How shall I, constantly thinking of thee, be able to know thee, O mysterious Lord? In what particular forms shall I meditate on thee? O Janardana―besought by mortals―tell me therefore in full thine own powers and forms of manifestation, for I am never sated of drinking of the life-giving water of thy words."

KRISHNA:
"O best of Kurus, blessings be upon thee. * I will make thee acquainted with the chief of my divine manifestations, for the extent of my nature is infinite.
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* In the original the first word is one which carries a blessing with it; it is a benediction and means "now then," but this in English conveys no idea of a benediction.

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"I am the Ego which is seated in the hearts of all beings; I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all existing things. Among Adityas* I am Vishnu, and among luminous bodies I am the sun. I am Mrichi among the Maruts, and among heavenly mansions I am the moon. Among the Vedas I am the Samaveda,‡ and Indra§ among the Gods; among the senses and organs I am the Manas, ΐ and of creatures the existence. I am Shankara among the Rudras; and Vittesha, the lord of wealth among the Yakshas and Rakshasas.** I am Pavaka among the Vasus,╫╫ and Meru ‡‡ among high-aspiring mountains. And know, O son of Pritha, that I am Brihaspati,§§ the
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*   Adityas, the twelve Sun-gods, who at the recurrence of the time for dissolution by fire, bring on the universal     conflagration.
 The Gods of air.
‡  In Western language this may be said to be the Veda of song in the very highest sense of the power of song. Many nations held that song had   the  power to make even mere matter change and move obedient to the sound.
§   In the original it is "Vasava" which is a name of Indra
ΐ.   The heart or the mind.
     Spirits of a sensual nature.
**      An order of evil spirits.
╫╫    Among the first created Beings of a high order.
‡‡    Said by some to be the North Pole.
§§     Jupiter, the teacher of the Devas.

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chief of teachers; among leaders of celestial armies Skanda, and of floods I am the ocean. I am Bhrigu among the Adept Kings; of words I am the monosyllable OM; of forms of worship, the silent repetition of sacred texts, and of immovable things I am the Himalaya. Of all the trees of the forest I am Ashwattha, the Pimpala tree; and of the celestial Sages, Narada; among Gandharbhas * I am Chitraratha, and of perfect saints, Kapila. Know that among horses I am Uchchisrava, who arose with the Amrita out of the ocean; among elephants, Airavata, and among men their sovereigns. Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows, Kamaduk, the cow of plenty; of procreators, the god of love, and of serpents, Vasuki, their chief. I am Ananta among the Nagas, ‡ Varuna among things of the waters; among the ancestors, Aryana, and of all who judge I am Yama. § Among the Daityas I am Prahlada, and among computations I am Time itself; the lion among
—————————————————————————————————————————————
*    Celestial host of singers; they are a class of elementals.
   Poisonous serpents.
‡  Non-poisonous serpents of a fabled sort, said to have speech and wisdom.
§   The Judge of the dead. 

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beasts, and Garuda * among the feathered tribe. Among purifiers I am Pavana, the air; Rama among those who carry arms, Makara among the fishes, and the Ganges among rivers. Among that which is evolved, O Arjuna, I am the beginning, the middle, and the end; of all sciences I am the knowledge of the Adhyβtma, and of uttered sounds the human speech. Among letters I am the vowel A, and of all compound words I am the Dwandwa; ‡I am endless time itself, and the Preserver whose face is turned on all sides. I am all-grasping death, and the birth of those who are to be; among feminine things I am fame, fortune, speech, memory, intelligence, patience, and forgiveness. Among the hymns of the Samaveda I am Brihat Saman, and the Gayatri among metres; among months I am the month Margashirsha, § and of seasons spring called Kusumakra, the time of flowers.
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Garuda, the bird of Vishnu, and also means esoterically the whole manvantaric cycle.
The highest spiritual knowledge.
‡ A form of compound word in the Sanskrit which preserves the meaning of the words making up the compound.
§ The month when the regular rains have stopped and the heat abated.
 

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Of those things which deceive I am the dice, and splendor itself among splendid things. I am victory, I am perseverance, and the goodness of the good. Of the race of Vrishni I am Vasudeva; of the Pandava I am Arjuna the conqueror of wealth; of perfect saints I am Vyasa, * and of prophet-seers I am the bard Oosana. Among rulers I am the rod of punishment, among those desiring conquest I am policy; and among the wise of secret knowledge I am their silence. I am, O Arjuna, the seed of all existing things, and there is not anything, whether animate or inanimate which is without me. My divine manifestations, O harasser of thy foes, are without end, the many which I have mentioned are by way of example. Whatever creature is permanent, of good fortune or mighty, also know it to be sprung from a portion of my energy. But what, O Arjuna, hast thou to do with so much knowledge as this? I established this whole universe with a single portion of myself, and remain separate."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Vyasa, the author of the Mahabharata.

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Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Tenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE UNIVERSAL
DIVINE PERFECTIONS.
index

CHAPTER XI

VISION OF THE DIVINE FORM AS INCLUDING ALL FORMS
______

ARJUNA:
My delusion has been dispersed by the words which thou for my soul's peace hast spoken concerning the mystery of the Adhyβtma - the spirit. For I have heard at full length from thee, O thou whose eyes are like lotus leaves, the origin and dissolution of existing things, and also thy inexhaustible majesty. It is even as thou hast described thyself, O mighty Lord; I now desire to see thy divine form, O sovereign Lord. Wherefore, O Lord, if thou thinkest it may be beheld by me, show me, O Master of devotion, thine inexhaustible Self."

KRISHNA:
"Behold, O son of Pritha, my forms by hundreds and by thousands, of diverse kinds divine, of many shapes and fashions. Behold the Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Aswins, and the Maruts, see things wonderful never seen be-

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fore, O son of Bharata. Here in my body now behold, O Gudakesha, the whole universe animate and inanimate gathered here in one, and all things else thou hast a wish to see. But as with thy natural eyes thou art not able to see me, I will give thee the divine eye. Behold my sovereign power and might!"

SANJAYA:
O king, having thus spoken, Hari, * the mighty Lord of mysterious power, showed to the son of Pritha his supreme form; with many mouths and eyes and many wonderful appearances, with many divine ornaments, many celestial weapons upraised; adorned with celestial garlands and robes, anointed with celestial ointments and perfumes, full of every marvelous thing, the eternal god whose face is turned in all directions. The glory and amazing splendor of this mighty Being may be likened to the radiance shed by a thousand suns rising together into the heavens. The son of Pandu then beheld within the body of the God of gods the whole uni-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Hari, an epithet of Krishna, meaning that he has the power to remove all difficulty.

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verse in all its vast variety. Overwhelmed with wonder, Dhananjaya, * the possessor of wealth, with hair standing on end, bowed down his head before the Deity, and thus with joined palms addressed him:

ARJUNA:
"I behold, O god of gods, within thy frame all beings and things of every kind; the Lord Brahmβ on his lotus throne, all the Rishees and the heavenly Serpents.
‡ I see thee on all sides, of infinite forms, having many arms, stomachs, mouths, and eyes. But I can discover neither thy beginning, thy middle, nor thy end, O universal Lord, form of the universe. I see thee crowned with a diadem and armed with mace and chakra, § a mass of splendor, darting light on all sides; difficult to behold, shining in every direction with light immeasurable, like the burning fire or
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Arjuna.
This is the Hindu mode of salutation.
‡ These are the Uragas, said to be serpents. But it must refer to the great Masters of Wisdom, who were often called Serpents.
§ Among human weapons this would be known as the discus, but here it means the whirling wheels of spiritual will and power

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glowing sun. Thou art the supreme inexhaustible Being, the end of effort, changeless, the Supreme Spirit of this universe, the never-failing guardian of eternal law: I esteem thee Purusha,* I see thee without beginning, middle, or end, of infinite power with arms innumerable, the sun and moon thy eyes, thy mouth a flaming fire, overmastering the whole universe with thy majesty. Space and heaven, and earth and every point around the three regions of the universe are filled with thee alone. The triple world is full of fear, O thou mighty Spirit, seeing this thy marvelous form of terror. Of the assemblage of the gods some I see fly to thee for refuge, while some in fear with joined hands sing forth thy praise; the hosts of the Maharshis and Siddhas, great sages and saints, hail thee, saying 'svasti,' and glorify thee with most excellent hymns. The Rudras, Adityas, the Vasus, and all those beings - the Sadhyas, Vishwas, the Ashwins, Maruts, and Ushmapas, the hosts of Gandharbhas, Yakshas, and
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* Purusha, the Eternal Person. The same name is also given to man by the Hindus.
 This cry is supposed to be for the benefit of the world, and has that meaning.

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Siddhas *―all stand gazing on thee and are amazed. All the worlds alike with me are terrified to behold thy wondrous form gigantic, O thou of mighty arms, with many mouths and eyes, with many arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs and projecting tusks. For seeing thee thus touching the heavens, shining with such glory, with widely-opened mouths and bright expanded eyes, my inmost soul is troubled and I lose both firmness and tranquility, O Vishnu. Beholding thy dreadful teeth and thy face like the burning of death, I can see neither heaven nor earth; I find no peace; have mercy, O Lord of gods, thou Spirit of the universe! The sons of Dhritarβshtra with all these rulers of men, Bhξshma, Drτna and also Karna and our principal warriors, seem to be impetuously precipitating themselves into thy mouths terrible with tusks; some are seen caught between thy teeth, their heads ground down. As the rapid streams of full-flowing rivers roll on to meet the ocean, even so these
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* All these names refer to different classes of celestial beings, some of which are now called in theosophical literature, "elementals"; the others are explained in H. P. Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine.

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heroes of the human race rush into thy flaming mouths. As troops of insects carried away by strong impulse find death in the fire, even so do these beings with swelling force pour into thy mouths for their own destruction. Thou involvest and swallowest all these creatures from every side, licking them in thy flaming lips; filling the universe with thy splendor, thy sharp beams burn, O Vishnu. Reverence be unto thee, O best of Gods! Be favorable! I seek to know thee, the Primeval One, for I know not thy work."

KRISHNA:
"I am Time matured, come hither for the destruction of these creatures; except thyself, not one of all these warriors here drawn up in serried ranks shall live. Wherefore, arise! seize fame! Defeat the foe and enjoy the full-grown kingdom! They have been already slain by me; be thou only the immediate agent, O thou both-armed one. * Be not disturbed. Slay Drτna, Bhξshma, Jayadratha, Karna, and all the other heroes of the war
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* Arjuna was a famous archer who could use the celestial bow, Gandiva, with either hand equally well.

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who are really slain by me. Fight, thou wilt conquer all thine enemies."

SANJAYA:
When he of the resplendent diadem * heard these words from the mouth of Keshava,
 he saluted Krishna with joined palms and trembling with fear, addressed him in broken accents, and bowed down terrified before him.

ARJUNA:
"The universe, O Hrishekesha,
is justly delighted with thy glory and is filled with zeal for thy service; the evil spirits are affrighted and flee on all sides, while all the hosts of saints bow down in adoration before thee. And wherefore should they not adore thee, O mighty Being, thou who art greater than Brahmβ, who art the first Maker? O eternal God of gods! O habitation of the universe! Thou art the one indivisible Being, and non-being, that which is supreme. Thou art the first of Gods, the most ancient Spirit;
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* Arjuna wore a brilliant tiara.
 Krishna, by other names.

 

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thou art the final supreme receptacle* of this universe; thou art the Knower and that which is to be known, and the supreme mansion; and by thee, O thou of infinite form, is this universe caused to emanate. Thou art Vayu, God of wind, Agni, god of fire, Yama, god of death, Varuna, God of waters; thou art the moon; Prajapati, the progenitor and grandfather, art thou. Hail! hail to thee! Hail to thee a thousand times repeated! Again and again hail to thee! Hail to thee! Hail to thee from before! Hail to thee from behind! Hail to thee on all sides, O thou All! Infinite is thy power and might; thou includest all things, therefore thou art all things!

"Having been ignorant of thy majesty, I took thee for a friend, and have called thee 'O Krishna, O son of Yadu, O friend,' and blinded by my affection and presumption, I have at times treated thee without respect in sport, in recreation, in repose, in thy chair, and at thy meals, in private and in public; all this I beseech thee, O inconceivable Being, to forgive.
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*  That is, that into which the universe is resolved on the final dissolution.

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"Thou art the father of all things animate and inanimate; thou art to be honored as above the guru himself, and worthy to be adored; there is none equal to thee, and how in the triple worlds could there be thy superior, O thou of unrivalled power? Therefore I bow down and with my body prostrate, I implore thee, O Lord, for mercy. Forgive, O Lord, as the friend forgives the friend, as the father pardons his son, as the lover the beloved. I am well pleased with having beheld what was never before seen, and yet my heart is overwhelmed with awe; have mercy then, O God; show me that other form, O thou who art the dwelling-place of the universe; I desire to see thee as before with thy diadem on thy head, thy hands armed with mace and chakra; assume again, O thou of a thousand arms and universal form, thy four-armed shape!" *

KRISHNA:
Out of kindness to thee, O Arjuna, by my divine power I have shown thee my supreme
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* Arjuna had been accustomed to see Krishna in his four-armed form, not only in the images shown in youth, but also when Krishna came into incarnation, and could therefore look on the four-armed form without fear.

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form, the universe, resplendent, infinite, primeval, and which has never been beheld by any other than thee. Neither by studying the Vedas, nor by alms-giving, nor by sacrificial rites, nor by deeds, nor by the severest mortification of the flesh can I be seen in this form by any other than thee, O best of Kurus. Having beheld my form thus awful, be not disturbed nor let thy faculties be confounded, but with fears allayed and happiness of heart look upon this other form of mine again."

SANJAYA:
Vasudeva * having so spoken reassumed his natural form; and thus in milder shape the Great One presently assuaged the fears of the terrified Arjuna.

ARJUNA:
"Now that I see again thy placid human shape, O Janardana, who art prayed to by mortals, my mind is no more disturbed and I am self-possessed."
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* A name of Krishna.

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KRISHNA:
"Thou hast seen this form of mine which is difficult to be perceived and which even the gods are always anxious to behold. But I am not to be seen, even as I have shown myself to thee, by study of the Vedas, nor by mortifications, nor alms-giving, nor sacrifices. I am to be approached and seen and known in truth by means of that devotion which has me alone as the object. He whose actions are for me alone, who esteemeth me the supreme goal, who is my servant only, without attachment to the results of action and free from enmity towards any creature, cometh to me, O son of Pandu."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Eleventh Chapter, by name―

THE VISION OF THE DIVINE FORM AS
INCLUDING ALL FORMS.

index

CHAPTER XII

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF FAITH
______

ARJUNA:
Among those of thy devotees who always thus worship thee, * which take the better way, those who worship the indivisible and unmanifested, or those who serve thee as thou now art?"

KRISHNA:
"Those who worship me with constant zeal, with the highest faith and minds placed on me, are held in high esteem by me. But those who, with minds equal toward everything, with senses and organs restrained, and rejoicing in the good of all creatures, meditate on the inexhaustible, immovable, highest, incorruptible, difficult to contemplate, invisible, omnipresent, unthinkable, the witness, undemonstrable, shall also come unto me. For those whose hearts are fixed on the unmani-
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* That is, as described at the end of Chapter XI.

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fested the labor is greater, because the path which is not manifest is with difficulty attained by corporeal beings.*But for those who worship me, renouncing in me all their actions, regarding me as the supreme goal and meditating on me alone, if their thoughts are turned to me, O son of Pritha, I presently become the savior from this ocean of incarnations and death. Place, then, thy heart on me, penetrate me with thy understanding, and thou shalt without doubt hereafter dwell in me. But if thou shouldst be unable at once steadfastly to fix thy heart and mind on me, strive then, O Dhananjaya, to find me by constant practice in devotion. If after constant practice, thou art still unable, follow me by actions performed for me; for by doing works for me thou shalt attain perfection. But if thou art unequal even to this, then, being self-restrained, place all thy works, failures and successes alike, on me, abandon-
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* The difficulty here stated is that caused by the personality, which causes us to see the Supreme as different and separate from ourselves.
The works referred to here are special works of all kinds performed for the sake of the Supreme Being, which will have their effect upon the performer in future lives.

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ing in me the fruit of every action. For knowledge is better than constant practice, meditation is superior to knowledge, renunciation of the fruit of action to meditation; final emancipation immediately results from such renunciation.

"My devotee who is free from enmity, well-disposed towards all creatures, merciful, wholly exempt from pride and selfishness, the same in pain and pleasure, patient of wrongs, contented, constantly devout, self-governed, firm in resolves, and whose mind and heart are fixed on me alone, is dear unto me. He also is my beloved of whom mankind is not afraid and who has no fear of man; who is free from joy, from despondency and the dread of harm. My devotee who is unexpecting,* pure, just, impartial, devoid of fear, and who hath forsaken interest in the results of action, is dear unto me. He also is worthy of my love who neither rejoiceth nor findeth fault, who neither lamenteth nor coveteth, and being my servant hath forsaken interest in both good and evil results. He also is my beloved servant who is equal-minded
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* In the original this reads as "not peering about."

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to friend or foe, the same in honor and dishonor, in cold and heat, in pain and pleasure, and is unsolicitous about the event of things; to whom praise and blame are as one; who is of little speech, content with whatever cometh to pass, who hath no fixed habitation, and whose heart, full of devotion, is firmly fixed. But those who seek this sacred ambrosia―the religion of immortality―even as I have explained it, full of faith, intent on me above all others, and united to devotion, are my most beloved."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Twelfth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF FAITH
index

CHAPTER XIII

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE DISCRIMINATION OF
THE KSHETRA FROM KSHETRAJNA
______

KRISHNA:
This perishable body, O son of Kuntξ, is known as Kshetra; those who are acquainted with the true nature of things call the soul who knows it, the Kshetrajna. Know also that I am the Knower in every mortal body, O son of Bharata; that knowledge which through the soul is a realization of both the known and the knower is alone esteemed by me as wisdom. What the Kshetra or body is, what it resembleth, what it produceth, and what is its origin, and also who he is who, dwelling within, knoweth it, as well as what is his power, learn all in brief from me. It has been manifoldly sung by the Rishees with discrimination and with arguments in the various Vedic hymns which treat of Brahmβ.

"This body, then, is made up of the great elements, Ahankara - egotism, Buddhi - intellect or judgment, the unmanifest, invisi-

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ble spirit; the ten centers of action, the mind, and the five objects of sense; desire, aversion, pleasure and pain, persistency of life, and firmness, the power of cohesion. Thus I have made known unto thee what the Kshetra or body is with its component parts.

"True wisdom of a spiritual kind is freedom from self-esteem, hypocrisy, and injury to others; it is patience, sincerity, respect for spiritual instructors, purity, firmness, self-restraint, dispassion for objects of sense, freedom from pride, and a meditation upon birth, death, decay, sickness, and error; it is an exemption from self-identifying attachment for children, wife, and household, and a constant unwavering steadiness of heart upon the arrival of every event whether favorable or unfavorable; it is a never-ceasing love for me alone, the self being effaced, and worship paid in a solitary spot, and a want of pleasure in congregations of men; it is a resolute continuance in the study of Adhyβtma, the Superior spirit, and a meditation upon the end of the acquirement of a knowledge of truth;―this is called wisdom or spiritual knowledge; its opposite is ignorance.

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"I will now tell thee what is the object of wisdom, from knowing which a man enjoys immortality; it is that which has no beginning, even the supreme Brahmβ, and of which it cannot be said that it is either Being or Non-Being. It has hands and feet in all directions; eyes, heads, mouths, and ears in every direction; it is immanent in the world, possessing the vast whole. Itself without organs, it is reflected by all the senses and faculties; unattached, yet supporting all; without qualities, yet the witness of them all. It is within and without all creatures animate and inanimate; it is inconceivable because of its subtlety, and although near it is afar off. Although undivided it appeareth as divided among creatures, and while it sustains existing things, it is also to be known as their destroyer and creator. It is the light of all lights, and is declared to be beyond all darkness; and it is wisdom itself, the object of wisdom, and that which is to be obtained by wisdom; in the hearts of all it ever presideth. Thus hath been briefly declared what is the perishable body, and wisdom itself, together with the object of wisdom; he, my devotee,

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who thus in truth conceiveth me, obtaineth my state.

"Know that prakriti or nature, and purusha the spirit, are without beginning. And know that the passions and the three qualities are sprung from nature. Nature or prakriti is said to be that which operates in producing cause and effect in actions; * individual spirit or purusha is said to be the cause of experiencing pain and pleasure. For spirit when invested with matter or prakriti experienceth the qualities which proceed from prakriti; its connection with these qualities is the cause of its rebirth in good and evil wombs. ‡ The spirit in the body is called Maheswara, the Great Lord, the spectator, the admonisher, the sustainer, the enjoyer, and also the Paramβtma, the highest soul. He who thus knoweth
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* Prakriti, matter or nature, is the cause of all action throughout the universe, as it is the basis by which action may take place; and herein are included all actions, whether of men, of gods, powers, or what not.
Purusha is the aspect of the individual spirit in every human breast; it is the cause of our experiencing pain and pleasure through the connection with nature found in the body.
‡ Here purusha is the persisting individuality which connects all reincarnations, as if it were the thread, and has hence been called the "thread Soul."

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the spirit and nature, together with the qualities, whatever mode of life he may lead, is not born again on this earth.

"Some men by meditation, using contemplation upon the Self, behold the spirit within, others attain to that end by philosophical study with its realization, and others by means of the religion of works. Others, again, who are not acquainted with it in this manner, but have heard it from others, cleave unto and respect it; and even these, if assiduous only upon tradition and attentive to hearing the scriptures, pass beyond the gulf of death. *

"Know, O chief of the Bharatas, that whenever anything, whether animate or inanimate, is produced, it is due to the union of the Kshetra and Kshetrajna- body and the soul. He who seeth the Supreme Being existing alike imperishable in all perishable things, sees indeed. Perceiving the same Lord present in everything and everywhere, he does not by the lower self destroy his own soul, but goeth to the supreme end. He who seeth
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* This last sentence means that they thus lay such a foundation as that in subsequent lives they will reach the other states and then to immortality.

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that all his actions are performed by nature only, and that the self within is not the actor, sees indeed. And when he realizes perfectly that all things whatsoever in nature are comprehended in the ONE, he attains to the Supreme Spirit. This Supreme Spirit, O son of Kuntξ, even when it is in the body, neither acteth nor is it affected by action, because, being without beginning and devoid of attributes, it is changeless. As the all-moving Akβsa by reason of its subtlety passeth everywhere unaffected, so the Spirit, though present in every kind of body, is not attached to action nor affected. As a single sun illuminateth the whole world, even so doth the One Spirit illumine every body, O son of Bharata. Those who with the eye of wisdom thus perceive what is the difference between the body and Spirit and the destruction of the illusion of objects, * go to the supreme."
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* This refers to what has previously been said about the great illusion produced by nature in causing us to see objects as different from Spirit, and it agrees with Patanjali, who says that, although the perfectly illuminated being has destroyed the illusion, it still has a hold upon those who are not illuminated - they will have to go through repeated rebirths until their time of deliverance also comes.

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Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Thirteenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF THE DISCRIMINATION
OF THE KSHETRA FROM KSHETRAJNA.

index

CHAPTER XIV

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SEPARATION FROM THE
THREE QUALITIES
______

KRISHNA:
I will explain further the sublime spiritual knowledge superior to all others, by knowing which all the sages have attained to supreme perfection on the dissolution of this body. They take sanctuary in this wisdom, and having attained to my state they are not born again even at the new evolution, nor are they disturbed at the time of general destruction.

"The great Brahmβ is my womb in which I place the seed; from that, O son of Bharata, is the production of all existing things. * this great Brahmβ is the womb for all those various forms which are produced from any womb, and I am the Father who provideth the seed. The three great qualities called sattva, rajas, and tamas―light or truth, passion
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* In this verse Brahmβ is to be taken as prakriti, or nature.

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or desire, and indifference or darkness―are born from nature, and bind the imperishable soul to body, O thou of mighty arms. Of these the sattva quality by reason of its lucidity and peacefulness entwineth the soul to rebirth through attachment to knowledge and that which is pleasant. Know that rajas is of the nature of desire, producing thirst and propensity; it, O son of Kuntξ, imprisoneth the Ego through the consequences produced from action. The quality of tamas, the offspring of the indifference in nature, is the deluder of all creatures, O son of Bharata; it imprisoneth the Ego in a body through heedless folly, sleep, and idleness. The sattva quality attaches the soul through happiness and pleasure, the rajas through action, and tamas quality surrounding the power of judgment with indifference attaches the soul through heedlessness.

"When, O son of Bharata, the qualities of tamas and rajas are overcome, then that of sattva prevaileth; tamas is chiefly acting when sattva and rajas are hidden; and when the sattva and tamas diminish, then rajas prevaileth. When wisdom, the bright light, shall

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become evident at every gate of the body, then one may know that the sattva quality is prevalent within. The love of gain, activity in action, and the initiating of works, restlessness and inordinate desire are produced when the quality of rajas is prevalent, whilst the tokens of the predominance of the tamas quality are absence of illumination, the presence of idleness, heedlessness, and delusion, O son of Kuntξ.

"If the body is dissolved when the sattva quality prevails, the self within proceeds to the spotless spheres of those who are acquainted with the highest place. When the body is dissolved while the quality of rajas is predominant, the soul is born again in a body attached to action; and so also of one who dies while tamas quality is prevalent, the soul is born again in the wombs of those who are deluded.

"The fruit of righteous acts is called pure and holy, appertaining to sattva; from rajas is gathered fruit in pain, and the tamas produceth only senselessness, ignorance, and indifference. From sattva wisdom is produced, from rajas desire, from tamas ignorance, delusion and folly. Those in whom the sattva

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quality is established mount on high, those who are full of rajas remain in the middle sphere, the world of men, while those who are overborne by the gloomy quality, tamas, sink below. But when the wise man perceiveth that the only agents of action are these qualities, and comprehends that which is superior to the qualities, he attains to my state. And when the embodied self surpasseth these three qualities of goodness, action, and indifference―which are coλxistent with the body it is released from rebirth and death, old age and pain, and drinketh of the water of immortality."

ARJUNA:
"What are the characteristic marks by which the man may be known, O Master, who hath surpassed the three qualities? What is his course of life, and what are the means by which he overcometh the qualities?"

KRISHNA:
"He, O son of Pandu, who doth not hate these qualities―illumination, action, and delusion―when they appear, nor longeth for them when they disappear; who, like one who

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is of no party, sitteth as one unconcerned about the three qualities and undisturbed by them, who being persuaded that the qualities exist, is moved not by them; who is of equal mind in pain and pleasure, self-centered, to whom a lump of earth, a stone, or gold are as one; who is of equal mind with those who love or dislike, constant, the same whether blamed or praised; equally minded in honor and disgrace, and the same toward friendly or unfriendly side, engaging only in necessary actions, such an one hath surmounted the qualities. And he, my servant, who worships me with exclusive devotion, having completely overcome the qualities, is fitted to be absorbed in Brahmβ the Supreme. I am the embodiment of the Supreme Ruler, and of the incorruptible, of the unmodifying, and of the eternal law, and of endless bliss."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Fourteenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION BY MEANS OF SEPARATION FROM
THE THREE QUALITIES.
index

CHAPTER XV

DEVOTION THROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE
SUPREME SPIRIT
______

KRISHNA:
Men say that the Ashwattha, the eternal sacred tree, * grows with its roots above and its branches below, and the leaves of which are the Vedas; he who knows this knows the Vedas. Its branches growing out of the three qualities
with the objects of sense as the lesser shoots, spread forth, some above and some below; and those roots which ramify below in the regions of mankind are the connecting bonds of action. Its form is not thus understood by men; it has no beginning, nor can its present constitution be understood ,‡ nor has it any end. When one hath hewn down with the strong axe of dispassion this Ashwattha tree with its deeply-
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* This is a symbol for the universe, which, although apparently destroyed and then again renovated, is never ending, for it is the same as the Evolutionary Stream.
╫  See preceding Chapter.
‡ This means that the bound Ego cannot understand it.

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imbedded roots, then that place is to be sought after from which those who there take refuge never more return to rebirth, for it * is the Primeval Spirit from which floweth the never-ending stream of conditioned existence. Those who are free from pride of self and whose discrimination is perfected, who have prevailed over the fault of attachment to action, who are constantly employed in devotion to meditation upon the Supreme Spirit, who have renounced desire and are free from the influence of the opposites known as pleasure and pain, are undeluded, and proceed to that place which endureth forever. Neither the sun nor the moon nor the fire enlighteneth that place; from it there is no return; it is my supreme abode.

"It is even a portion of myself which, having assumed life in this world of conditioned existence, draweth together the five senses and the mind in order that it may obtain a body and may leave it again. And those are carried by the Sovereign Lord to and from whatever body he enters or quits, even as the
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* It is the place of the Supreme.

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breeze bears the fragrance from the flower. Presiding over the eye, the ear, the touch, the taste, and the power of smelling, and also over the mind, he experienceth the objects of sense. The deluded do not see the spirit when it quitteth or remains in the body, nor when, moved by the qualities, it has experience in the world. But those who have the eye of wisdom perceive it, and devotees who industriously strive to do so see it dwelling in their own hearts; whilst those who have not overcome themselves, who are devoid of discrimination, see it not even though they strive, thereafter. Know that the brilliance of the sun which illuminateth the whole world, and the light which is in the moon and in the fire, are the splendor of myself. I enter the earth supporting all living things by my power, and I am that property of sap which is taste, nourishing all the herbs and plants of the field. Becoming the internal fire of the living, I associate with the upward and downward breathing, and cause the four kinds of food to digest. I am in the hearts of all men, and from me come memory, knowledge, and also the loss of both. I am to

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be known by all the Vedas; I am he who is the author of the Vedanta, and I alone am the interpreter of the Vedas.

"There are two kinds of beings in the world, the one divisible, the other indivisible; the divisible is all things and the creatures, the indivisible is called Kϋtastha, or he who standeth on high unaffected. But there is another spirit designated as the Supreme Spirit―Paramβtma―which permeates and sustains the three worlds. As I am above the divisible and also superior to the indivisible, therefore both in the world and in the Vedas am I known as the Supreme Spirit. He who being not deluded knoweth me thus as the Supreme Spirit, knoweth all things and worships me under every form and condition.

"Thus, O sinless one, have I declared unto thee this most sacred science; he who understandeth it, O son of Bharata, will be a wise man and the performer of all that is to be done."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the collo-

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quy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Fifteenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION THROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE
SUPREME SPIRIT

index

CHAPTER XVI

DEVOTION THROUGH DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN
GODLIKE AND DEMONIACAL NATURES
______

KRISHNA:
Fearlessness, sincerity, assiduity in devotion, generosity, self-restraint, piety, and alms-givings, study, mortification, and rectitude; harmlessness, veracity, and freedom from anger, resignation, equanimity, and not speaking of the faults of others, universal compassion, modesty, and mildness; patience, power, fortitude, and purity, discretion, dignity, unrevengefulness, and freedom from conceit―these are the marks of him whose virtues are of a godlike character, O son of Bharata. Those, O son of Pritha, who are born with demoniacal dispositions are marked by hypocrisy, pride, anger, presumption, harshness of speech, and ignorance. The destiny of those whose attributes are godlike is final liberation, while those of demoniacal dispositions, born to the Asuras' lot, [suffer] continued bondage to mortal birth; grieve not,

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O son of Pandu, for thou art born with the divine destiny. There are two kinds of natures in beings in this world, that which is godlike, and the other which is demoniacal; the godlike hath been fully declared, hear now from me, O son of Pritha, what the demoniacal is.

"Those who are born with the demoniacal disposition―of the nature of the Asuras―know not the nature of action nor of cessation from action, they know not purity nor right behavior, they possess no truthfulness. They deny that the universe has any truth in it, saying it is not governed by law, declaring that it hath no Spirit; they say creatures are produced alone through the union of the sexes, and that all is for enjoyment only. Maintaining this view, their souls being ruined, their minds contracted, with natures perverted, enemies of the world, they are born to destroy. They indulge insatiable desires, are full of hypocrisy, fast-fixed in false beliefs through their delusions. They indulge in unlimited reflections which end only in annihilation, convinced until death that the enjoyment of the objects of their desires is

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the supreme good. Fast-bound by the hundred chords of desire, prone to lust and anger, they seek by injustice and the accumulation of wealth for the gratification of their own lusts and appetites. 'This to-day hath been acquired by me, and that object of my heart I shall obtain; this wealth I have, and that also shall be mine. This foe have I already slain, and others will I forthwith vanquish; I am the lord, I am powerful, and I am happy. I am rich and with precedence among men; where is there another like unto me? I shall make sacrifices, give alms, and enjoy.' In this manner do those speak who are deluded. Confounded by all manner of desires, entangled in the net of delusion, firmly attached to the gratification of their desires, they descend into hell. Esteeming themselves very highly, self-willed, full of pride and ever in pursuit of riches, they perform worship with hypocrisy and not even according to ritual, * but only for outward show. Indulging in pride, selfishness, ostentation, power, lust, and
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This refers to the irregular performance of Vedic sacrifices by those who are without the right spiritual gifts, and only wish to imitate ostentatiously the right performance.

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anger, they detest me who am in their bodies and in the bodies of others. Wherefore I continually hurl these cruel haters, the lowest of men, into wombs of an infernal nature in this world of rebirth. And they being doomed to those infernal wombs, more and more deluded in each succeeding rebirth, never come to me, O son of Kuntξ, but go at length to the lowest region. *

"The gates of hell are three―desire, anger, covetousness, which destroy the soul; wherefore one should abandon them. Being free from these three gates of hell, O son of Kuntξ, a man worketh for the salvation of his soul, and thus proceeds to the highest path. He who abandoneth the ordinances of the Scriptures to follow the dictates of his own desires, attaineth neither perfection nor happiness nor the highest path. Therefore, in deciding what is fit and what unfit to be done, thou shouldst perform actions on earth with a knowledge of what is declared in Holy Writ."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy
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* This is final annihilation of those who deny their own soul and thus lose it. It is worse than the hell before spoken of for there is no return.

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Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Sixteenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION THROUGH DISCRIMINATING
BETWEEN GODLIKE AND DEMONIACAL
NATURES

index

CHAPTER XVII

DEVOTION AS REGARDS THE THREE KINDS OF FAITH
______

ARJUNA:
What is the state of those men who, while they neglect the precepts of the Scriptures, yet worship in faith, O Krishna? Is it of the sattva, the rajas, or the tamas quality?"

KRISHNA:
"The faith of mortals is of three kinds, and is born from their own disposition; it is of the quality of truth - sattva, action - rajas, and indifference - tamas; hear now what those are.

"The faith of each one, O son of Bharata, proceeds from the sattva quality; the embodied soul being gifted with faith, each man is of the same nature as that ideal on which his faith is fixed. Those who are of the disposition which ariseth from the prevalence of the sattva or good quality worship the gods; those of the quality of rajas worship the celestial

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powers, the Yakshas and Rβkshasas; other men in whom the dark quality of indifference or tamas predominates worship elemental powers and the ghosts of dead men. Those who practice severe self-mortification not enjoined in the Scriptures are full of hypocrisy and pride, longing for what is past and desiring more to come. They, full of delusion, torture the powers and faculties which are in the body, and me also, who am in the recesses of the innermost heart; know that they are of an infernal tendency.

"Know that food which is pleasant to each one, as also sacrifices, mortification, and almsgiving, are of three kinds; hear what their divisions are. The food which increases the length of days, vigor and strength, which keeps one free from sickness, of tranquil mind, and contented, and which is savory, nourishing, of permanent benefit and congenial to the body, is that which is attractive to those in whom the sattva quality prevaileth. The food which is liked by those of the rajas quality is over bitter, too acid, excessively salt, hot, pungent, dry and burning, and causeth unpleasantness, pain, and disease. Whatever

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food is such as was dressed the day before, that is tasteless or rotting, that is impure, is that which is preferred by those in whom predominates the quality of tamas or indifference.

"The sacrifice or worship which is directed by Scripture and is performed by those who expect no reward but who are convinced that it is necessary to be done, is of the quality of light, of goodness, of sattva. But know that that worship or sacrifice which is performed with a view to its results, and also for an ostentation of piety, belongs to passion, the quality of rajas, O best of the Bharatas. But that which is not according to the precepts of Holy Writ, without distribution of bread, without sacred hymns, without gifts to brahmans at the conclusion, and without faith, is of the quality of tamas.

"Honoring the gods, the brahmans, the teachers, and the wise, purity, rectitude, chastity, and harmlessness are called mortification of the body. Gentle speech which causes no anxiety, which is truthful and friendly, and diligence in the reading of the Scriptures, are said to be austerities of speech. Serenity of mind, mildness of temper, silence,

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self-restraint, absolute straightforwardness of conduct, are called mortification of the mind. This threefold mortification or austerity practiced with supreme faith and by those who long not for a reward is of the sattva quality.

"But that austerity which is practiced with hypocrisy, for the sake of obtaining respect for oneself or for fame or favor, and which is uncertain and belonging wholly to this world, is of the quality of rajas. Those austerities which are practiced merely by wounding oneself or from a false judgment or for the hurting of another are of the quality of tamas. Those gifts which are bestowed at the proper time to the proper person, and by men who are not desirous of a return, are of the sattva quality, good and of the nature of truth. But that gift which is given with the expectation of a return from the beneficiary or with a view to spiritual benefit flowing therefrom or with reluctance, is of the rajas quality, bad and partaketh of untruth. Gifts given out of place and season and to unworthy persons, without proper attention and scornfully, are of the tamas quality, wholly bad and of the nature of darkness.

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"OM TAT SAT, these are said to be the threefold designation of the Supreme Being. By these in the beginning were sanctified the knowers of Brahmβ, * the Vedas, and sacrifices. Therefore the sacrifices, the giving of alms, and the practicing of austerities are always, among those who expound Holy Writ, preceded by the word OM. Among those who long for immortality and who do not consider the reward for their actions, the word TAT precedes their rites of sacrifice, their austerities, and giving of alms. The word SAT is used for qualities that are true and holy, and likewise is applied to laudable actions, O son of Pritha. The state of mental sacrifice when actions are at rest is also called SAT. Whatever is done without faith, whether it be sacrifice, alms-giving, or austerities, is called ASAT, that which is devoid of truth and goodness, O son of Pritha, and is not of any benefit either in this life or after death."

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* It reads "Brahmanas," and does not seem to refer to any caste.

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Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Seventeenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION AS REGARDS THE THREE
KINDS OF FAITH
index

CHAPTER XVIII

DEVOTION AS REGARDS RENUNCIATION AND
FINAL LIBERATION
______

ARJUNA:
I wish to learn, O great-armed one, the nature of abstaining from action and of the giving up of the results of action, and also the difference between these two, O slayer of Keshin." *

KRISHNA:
"The bards conceive that the forsaking of actions which have a desired object is renunciation or Sannyasa; the wise call the disregard of the fruit of every action true disinterestedness in action. By some wise men it is said, 'Every action is as much to be avoided as a crime,' while by others it is declared, 'Deeds of sacrifice, of mortification, and of charity should not be forsaken.' Among these divided opinions hear my certain deci-
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* Keshin was a daitya, a demon, fabled to have been sent by Kansa for the purpose of destroying Krishna.

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sion, O best of the Bharatas, upon this matter of disinterested forsaking, which is declared to be of three kinds, O chief of men. Deeds of sacrifice, of mortification, and of charity are not to be abandoned, for they are proper to be performed, and are the purifiers of the wise. But even those works are to be performed after having renounced all selfish interest in them and in their fruits; this, O son of Pritha, is my ultimate and supreme decision. The abstention from works which are necessary and obligatory is improper; the not doing of such actions is due to delusion springing from the quality of tamas. The refraining from works because they are painful and from the dread of annoyance ariseth from the quality of rajas which belongs to passion, and he who thus leaves undone what he ought to do shall not obtain the fruit which comes from right forsaking. The work which is performed, O Arjuna, because it is necessary, obligatory, and proper, with all self-interest therein put aside and attachment to the action absent, is declared to be of the quality of truth and goodness which is known as sattva. The true renouncer, full of the

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quality of goodness, wise and exempt from all doubt, is averse neither to those works which fail nor those which succeed. It is impossible for mortals to utterly abandon actions; but he who gives up the results of action is the true renouncer. The threefold results of action―unwished for, wished for, and mixed―accrue after death to those who do not practice this renunciation, but no results follow those who perfectly renounce. *

"Learn, O great-armed one, that for the accomplishment of every work five agents are necessary, as is declared. These are the substratum, the agent, the various sorts of organs, the various and distinct movements and with these, as fifth, the presiding deities. These five agents are included in the performance of every act which a man undertaketh, whether with his body, his speech, or his mind. This being thus, whoever because of the imperfection of his mind beholdeth the real self as the agent thinketh wrongly and seeth not aright. He whose nature is free
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This verse refers not only to effects after death in the post-mortem states, but also to subsequent lives in the body upon reincarnating.

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from egotism and whose power of discrimination is not blinded does not slay though he killeth all these people, and is not bound by the bonds of action. The three causes which incite to action are knowledge, the thing to be known, and the knower, and threefold also is the totality of the action in the act, the instrument, and the agent. Knowledge, the act, and the agent are also distinguished in three ways according to the three qualities; listen to their enumeration after that classification.

"Know that the wisdom which perceives in all nature one single principle, indivisible and incorruptible, not separate in the separate objects seen, is of the sattva quality. The knowledge which perceives different and manifold principles as present in the world of created beings pertains to rajas, the quality of passion. But that knowledge, wholly without value, which is mean, attached to one object alone as if it were the whole, which does not see the true cause of existence, is of the nature of tamas, indifferent and dark.

"The action which is right to be done, performed without attachment to results, free

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from pride and selfishness, is of the sattva quality. That one is of the rajas quality which is done with a view to its consequences, or with great exertion, or with egotism. And that which in consequence of delusion is undertaken without regard to its consequences, or the power to carry it out, or the harm it may cause, is of the quality of darkness―tamas.

"The doer who performs necessary actions unattached to their consequences and without love or hatred is of the nature of the quality of truth―sattva. The doer whose actions are performed with attachment to the result, with great exertion, for the gratification of his lusts and with pride, covetousness, uncleanness, and attended with rejoicing and grieving, is of the quality of rajas―passion and desire. The doer who is ignorant, foolish, undertaking actions without ability, without discrimination, with sloth, deceit, obstinacy, mischievousness, and dilatoriness, is of the quality of tamas.

Hear now, O Dhananjaya, conqueror of wealth, the differences which I shall now ex-

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plain in the discerning power * and the steadfast power within, according to the three classes flowing from the divisions of the three qualities. The discerning power that knows how to begin and to renounce, what should and what should not be done, what is to be feared and what not, what holds fast and what sets the soul free, is of the sattva quality. That discernment, O son of Pritha, which does not fully know what ought to be done and what not, what should be feared and what not, is of the passion-born rajas quality. That discriminating power which is enveloped in obscurity, mistaking wrong for right and all things contrary to their true intent and meaning, is of the dark quality of tamas.

"That power of steadfastness holding the man together, which by devotion controls every motion of the mind, the breath, the senses and the organs, partaketh of the sattva quality. And that which cherisheth duty, pleasure, and wealth, in him who looketh to the fruits of action is of the quality of rajas. But that through which the man of low ca-
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* This is Buddhi, the highest intellection, the power of judgment.

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pacity stays fast in drowsiness, fear, greed, vanity and rashness is from the tamas quality, O son of Pritha.

"Now hear what are the three kinds of pleasure wherein happiness comes from habitude and pain is ended. That which in the beginning is as poison and in the end as the water of life, and which arises from a purified understanding, is declared to be of the sattva quality. That arising from the connection of the senses with their objects which in the beginning is sweet as the waters of life but at the end like poison, is of the quality of rajas. That pleasure is of the dark tamas quality which both in the beginning and the end arising from sleep, idleness, and carelessness, tendeth both in the beginning and the end to stupify the soul. There is no creature on earth nor among the hosts in heaven who is free from these three qualities which arise from nature.

"The respective duties of the four castes, of Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sϋdras, are also determined by the qualities which predominated in the disposition of each, O harasser of thy foes. The natural duty of a Brahman compriseth tranquility, purity,

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self-mastery, patience, rectitude, learning, spiritual discernment, and belief in the existence of another world. Those of the Kshatriya sprung from his nature, are valor, glory, strength, firmness, not to flee from the field of battle, liberality and a lordly character. The natural duties of the Vaisya are to till the land, tend cattle and to buy and sell; and that of the Sϋdra is to serve, as is his natural disposition.

"Men being contented and devoted to their own proper duties attain perfection; hear now how that perfection is attained by devotion to natural duty.

"If a man maketh offering to the Supreme Being who is the source of the works of all and by whom this universe was spread abroad, he thus obtaineth perfection. The performance of the duties of a man's own particular calling, although devoid of excellence, is better than doing the duty of another, however well performed; and he who fulfills the duties obligated by nature, does not incur sin. A man's own natural duty, even though stained with faults, ought not to be abandoned. For all human acts are involved in faults, as the

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fire is wrapped in smoke. The highest perfection of freedom from action is attained through renunciation by him who in all works has an unfettered mind and subdued heart.

"Learn from me, in brief, in what manner the man who has reached perfection attains to the Supreme Spirit, which is the end, the aim, and highest condition of spiritual knowledge.

"Embued with pure discrimination, restraining himself with resolution, having rejected the charms of sound and other objects of the senses, and casting off attachment and dislike; dwelling in secluded places, eating little, with speech, body, and mind controlled, engaging in constant meditation and unwaveringly fixed in dispassion; abandoning egotism, arrogance, violence, vanity, desire, anger, pride, and possession, with calmness ever present, a man is fitted to be the Supreme Being. And having thus attained to the Supreme, he is serene, sorrowing no more, and no more desiring, but alike towards all creatures he attains to supreme devotion to me. By this devotion to me he knoweth funda-

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mentally who and what I am and having thus discovered me he enters into me without any intermediate condition. And even the man who is always engaged in action shall attain by my favor to the eternal and incorruptible imperishable abode, if he puts his trust in me alone. With thy heart place all thy works on me, prefer me to all else, exercise mental devotion continually, and think constantly of me. By so doing thou shalt by my divine favor surmount every difficulty which surroundeth thee; but if from pride thou wilt not listen to my words, thou shalt undoubtedly be lost. And if, indulging self-confidence, thou sayest 'I will not fight,' such a determination will prove itself vain, for the principles of thy nature will impel thee to engage. Being bound by all past karma to thy natural duties, thou, O son of Kuntξ, wilt involuntarily do from necessity that which in thy folly thou wouldst not do. There dwelleth in the heart of every creature, O Arjuna, the Master―Ishwara ―who by his magic power causeth all things and creatures to revolve mounted upon the universal wheel of time. Take sanctuary with him alone, O son of Bharata, with all

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thy soul; by his grace thou shalt obtain supreme happiness, the eternal place.

"Thus have I made known unto thee this knowledge which is a mystery more secret than secrecy itself; ponder it fully in thy mind; act as seemeth best unto thee.

"But further listen to my supreme and most mysterious words which I will now for thy good reveal unto thee because thou art dearly beloved of me. Place thy heart upon me as I have declared myself to be, serve me, offer unto me alone, and bow down before me alone, and thou shalt come to me; I swear it, for thou art dear to me. Forsake every other religion and take refuge alone with me; grieve not, for I shall deliver thee from all transgressions. Thou must never reveal this to one who doth not practice mortification, who is without devotion, who careth not to hear it, nor unto him who despiseth me. He who expoundeth this supreme mystery to my worshippers shall come to me if he performs the highest worship of me; and there shall not be among men anyone who will better serve me than he, and he shall be dearest unto me of all on earth. If anyone shall study these sacred

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dialogues held between us two, I shall consider that I am worshipped by him with the sacrifice of knowledge; this is my resolve. And even the man who shall listen to it with faith and not reviling shall, being freed from evil, attain to the regions of happiness provided for those whose deeds are righteous.

Hast thou heard all this, O son of Pritha, with mind one-pointed? Has the delusion of thought which arose from ignorance been removed, O Dhananjaya?"

ARJUNA:
"By thy divine power, O thou who fallest not,* my delusion is destroyed, I am collected once more; I am free from doubt, firm, and will act according to thy bidding."

SANJAYA:
Thus have I been an ear-witness of the miraculous astonishing dialogue, never heard before, between Vasudeva and the magnanimous son of Pritha. By the favor of Vyasa I heard this supreme mystery of Yoga - devotion - even as revealed from the mouth of
—————————————————————————————————————————————
* The word is "Achyuta.

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Krishna himself who is the supreme Master of devotion. And as I again and again remember, O mighty king, this wonderful sacred dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, I am delighted again and again. Also, as I recall to my memory the wonderful form of Hari, * the Lord, my astonishment is great, O king, and I rejoice again and again. Where-ever Krishna, the supreme Master of devotion, and wherever the son of Pritha, the mighty archer, may be, there with certainty are fortune, victory, wealth, and wise action; this is my belief.

Thus in the Upanishads, called the holy Bhagavad-Gξtβ, in the science of the Supreme Spirit, in the book of devotion, in the colloquy between the Holy Krishna and Arjuna, stands the Eighteenth Chapter, by name―

DEVOTION AS REGARDS RENUNCIATION AND
FINAL LIBERATION.
 

—————————————————————————————————————————————
* One of the names of Vishnu, and also applied to Krishna.

 

 GLOSSARY FOR THE BHAGAVAD GITA

GLOSSARY

________________

             Some notes on this Glossary:

 Spelling is arbitrary, as written and spoken Sanskrit, con­sisting of phonetic symbols, uses sounds that cannot easily be reproduced by combinations of English letter-sounds. 

 The older and more commonly used written versions are given, so students can more easily identify them and their meanings, and grasp phil­osophical points of view.  This may disagree with some of the current Sanskrit and Orientalist "authorities," who generally focus on a literal translation, employing the methods of the "head doctrine, perceived by the eye,"  or the "Lower Manas."

The "Heart Doctrine" is that which the Original Authors desired to offer for study by aspirants to Wisdom.  It is, often, a "meaning concealed within a meaning." 

 An attempt has been made here to indicate some of the inner meanings employed by those Primeval Sages.  The literal translation is usually unable to give much depth;  as a consequence, vast arguments can arise.

 Much of the "original" written Hindu Literature we study was abridged around the time of the Mogul Emperor Akbar (1562-1605), and at that time those portions taken out were encoded within the abridged material left.  [ see "Hindu Literature" here below. ]  Within the Apara (exoteric) Vidya, the never recorded Para (esoteric) Vidya is concealed.  [S D I xxiii ]

 Some words are employed with meanings that vary according to context, as underlying all Hindu sacred texts, implications that concern mental and emotional states of consciousness will be found.   

The accepted fact that each human being is an immortal Spirit/Soul-mind leads to consideration of many levels of psychic and Spiritual perception.  The inner Immortal is the "One Con­sciousness" which pierces through all the states and planes of a being's nature, and serves to uphold the memory of experiences in those states. 

 An understanding of these may be obtained by con­trolling the "modifications" of the "Lower Mind"--Kama-Manas--the brain-mind of the Personality, says Patanjali [see Book I].  Such a knowledge is said to be obtainable in full, when the devotee can use at will, a knowledge of the 7 x 7 scale of cause and effect:  the "49 fires" that "burn" within him and illuminate his life.

 Man’s “principles” are tabulated in the SECRET DOCTRINE [S D  I  157-8], and these correlate to the Universal Principles (S D  II  596]

 The Bhagavad Gita is designed by Krishna to evoke the "memo­ry of past lives" in those who read and inquire of it for the secrets of Nature and of man's constitution that are enshrined there for them.  It is called "the study of Adepts."

 In this regard, Krishna [or the Universal SPIRITUAL SELF] is considered in every human as the “Higher Self” or the "Divine Man."  He is Immortal, present in every Man, as well as in every being in Nature. All manifested forms are considered evidence of the many vehicles of intelligence, which, immortal and continuous, are used by the innumerable ‘rays’ of the "One Consciousness," to develop in them, over an enormous amount of time, so as to encompass the whole range of possible experience, and thus, to rise, as Individuals, to the perceptive level and to the ‘will’ of the One Universal BEING.

 The Higher Self is invoked by sincere and conscientious dis­ciples who: 

 1.  recognize that they, and all other beings are in essence “brothers“ and fellow immortals. 

 2.  That living in a physical form is for all, a common pilgrimage.   

3.  That brotherhood, virtue, uni­versal ethics and morality are to be rigorously applied in life.  This makes of Karma an ally.

 4.  The goal of Supreme Knowledge is attainable by all beings. No exceptions.   

5.  The "life-atom" is a potential Man and is informed by an im­mortal Monad (Atma-Buddhi), a "god." 

 6.  Any selfish or evil feelings, acts or thoughts, are Karmic impediments to the pro­gress of aspirants towards Spiritual knowledge. We dare not inflict these delays on others.

 7.  The disciple should center his attention on moral refinement, self-control, Self-knowledge and service to all within his area of living,

             Sources herein used are : 

 Theosophical Glossary--H.P.B., (1891);  Working Glossary, The Path, New York, (1890).  Glossary printed at the end of the 2nd. Edition (1891) of the Key to Theo­sophy by H.P.Blavatsky.  Bhawani Shankar's and Subbha Row's Gita Lectures, Ethel Beswick's The Hindu Gods and Heroes, H.P.Blavats­ky's The Voice of the Silence, Mr. W. Q. Judge The Bhagavad Gita, and Notes on the Bhagavad Gita, and other sources.

             Pronunciation:

 A student will find that some phonetic spellings used here may differ from other glossaries and phonetic renderings.  Sanskrit is not accented, but equal emphasis is given to the every syllable in pronouncing a word.  Vowel sounds are pronounced:    

 

                        a          as in father     - aa

                        e          as in hate      - "eh"

                        i           as in pique      - ee

                        o          as in go          - oh

                        u          as in root        - oo

                        ai          as in mine      -  I

                        au         as in now      - ow

 Consonants are given their usual normal, unaccented sound. (no dipthongs)

 Unless otherwise indicated, Sanskrit, assumes that every word ends with a brief sound, the equivalent of "ah" or "am."  This is a sound produced very briefly when the lips close to con­clude the final sound of a word.

 

=============================================================
Glossary;

Sanskrit and Terms derived from other languages           

used in the study of the Bhagavad Gita.

and other Hindu Sacred Texts.

                                                                                                                                     A to Z

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Sanskrit Word               Explanation                                           References

=============================================================

             A         A

 A.                   First letter in every world alphabet.  Has a mystic and magical virtue.  First sound  of the infant aspirating breath.  One "I."  White or yellow. Trinity in Unity. Ahih a Sanskrit root word/sound.  "A" placed before a Sanskrit word can    indicate a negative.

Abhamsi           Mystical designation of 4 orders of lower beings:  Gods, Demons, Pitris, Men. And, symbolically through the akasa--the "waters of space, with the 3 orders of Spiritual Beings  SD I 458, Voice, pp. 77-8 fn.:  Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya. Dharmakaya.

Abhanga           Unbreakable.  Permanent. 

Abhava .           Negation, non-being.  Noumenal substance or abstract objectivity.

Abhijna .            6 Yogic powers of perception on a spiritual level Gnyanindriyas :  Universal Vision, Universal hearing  of  any   sound.

Abhimana         Thirst for personal power and glory.  Pride.

Abhimanyu       Son of Arjuna by wife Subhadra.

ABSOLUTE      ALL without qualifications.  Universally pervasive.  Attributeless, Illimitable.  Unmodified by manifestation or non-manifestation.  "IT" or "THAT."

Abhyasa           . Practice of meditation.  Concentration.

Acharya           .  A Wise Teacher of Spiritual Rules & Wisdom.   Title of Initiates, meaning "Master."  Teacher of the laws of ethics - Karma.

Achit    .           .   Absolute non-intelligence.

Achyuta            .    Not subject to "fall," or change.  Opposite of chyuta--fallen.  A title of Vishnu.

Action (Rajas)   .           Deeds, motives, choice, change.

Adept   .           .           Expert or master of an art.  More than chelas but less than Initiates.

Adharma          .           Vice.  Evil.  Unrighteousness.  Opposite of Dharma - right ethical duty.

Adhi     (Adi).   .           Supreme.          Primeval source.  First.

Adhidaivata       .           First of Devas, dwelling in the Sun, and in Man's heart (adhi = over, daiva = god).   Purusha.  The Spiritual Person.

Adikrit  .           .           "First produced, or made."  The creative  Force, eternal and uncreate, but manifesting periodically.  Vishnu slumbering on the "waters of Space during Pralaya."

Adhiyasa          .           Confusing the attributes of One with another.

Adhiyajna         .           Spiritual Person in every personality.  Although One it appears as divided in every being  because of the personal lower-self. "The Eternal Sacrifice of animating a living form of matter."

Adhyatma         .           Soul of Souls.  (adhi=over, atma=Soul). Pratyagatma.  Individual and Universal SOUL.  Immortal.  Eternal.

Adhyaya           .           Chapter.  Discourse.

Adi (Adhi).       .           First.  Primeval.  The Unknown Deity.  Brahm.

Adibhuta           .           "First Element."  Container of all elements. (adhi=over, bhuta= elements).  The "un-fathomable deity."  Title of Vishnu.

Adi-Budhi         .           Wisdom.  Primeval Intelligence.  Eternal Buddhi or Universal Mind: Divine Ideation, (Mahabuddhi) being synonymous with  Mahat.

Adinatha           .           The "First Lord."

Adinidana         .           First, supreme causality emanating from the ABSOLUTE.

Adi-Sakti          .           Primeval divine Power.  The creative female Power of and in every male "god."

Adi-Sanat         .           "The first Ancient."  Brahmaa ="Creato."

Adishtanam       .           Basis, principle.  Axiom.

Aditi (Amba)     .           Boundless space.  Aether.  Mulaprakriti=root-Matter.  Symbolized by infinite Space. Mother of the Gods and Kumaras.

Aditya  .           .           Sun.  As Martanda he is the son of Aditi.

Adityas .           .           7 sons of Aditya--7 planetary "gods."

Advaitam          .           Undivided.  Unity.  SAT.  Shantam.

 Advaita System .           Non-dualistic philosophy.  One Reality.  Exponent:  Shankaracharya.

After-Death States        [ see T. Gloss. p. 336-7 ]

Agastya-Rishi   .           Reputed author of the Rig Veda.  First  instructor of the Dravidians. 

Ajnachakra       .           Base of the nose.  A nerve plexus.        

Agneyachakra   .           "Circle of fire."

Agneyastra       .           Fiery weapons, used by Adept-race Atlanteans,

(Astras)                           Received by Drona from Agnivesa.

Agni     .           .           God of Divine Fire.  Justice.  Oldest and most revered of Gods.  Triple aspect:  Sun, Lightning, Fire by friction.  Agni-Vayu-Surya are the primordial Gods, honored before the Trimurti of Brahma- Vishnu-Siva.

Agni Bhuvah     .           "Born of fire."  Applied to the 4 races of Kshatriyas.  Kartikeya, god of War.

Agni Hotri         .           Priests of the Fire-god.  Sacrificers.

Agnishvattas     .           Gods of Fire and Air.  Incorporeal Pitris, fashioners of the Inner Man.  Separate  from the Barishad Pitris, lunar ancestors, who provide nascent mankind with   their astral form.

Agra-Sandhani  .           Life's record in the "heart of the Soul." Basis for separation of kama-rupa from the Devachanee.  [T. Glos. 10-11, 82.]

Aham   .           .              "I" -- In the Personality, a reflection of the Divine SELF.  When selfish, gives rise to egotism.  When unselfish leads  to Universal Wisdom. [ see SD I 452-3.]

Ahambhava      .           Total self-renunciation.  Surrender of the lower self to divine duties.

Ahamkara (Aham).       Egoism.  Making of the lower self. Pride.

(Ahankara)                             (Aham=self, kara=making). [ SD I 452-3.]  Personal sense of separateness.  The selfish "I."  Desire and passion.

Ahan    .           .           Day.  Body of Brahma in the Puranas.

Aitareya Brahmana       An Aranyaka, Upanishad on the Rig Veda.

Aja       .           .           Un-born.  Applied to Highest Deities.  Eternally existent.  Logos.  Man's Spirit.

Ajityas  .           .           12 Great Gods incarnating in each Manvantara.Kumaras.  Jnana Devas.  Jayas.

Ajnana  .           .           False, or no-knowledge.  Delusion. Profane.

Ajnachakra       .           Base of the nose.  A nerve plexus.  "Circle of Fire."

Akasa   .           .           Subtle, supersensuous spiritual essence in which lies the eternal Ideation of the Universe, pervading all space.  Sound Primordial substance.  Recording medium for all events, motives.  A permanent history of evolution in all detail.

Akshara            .           Indestructible, imperishable, Om.  Spiritual  Soul of the Universe and Man.  Perfect.

Alaya   .           .           Universal Over-Soul.  Permanent.  Indissoluble.  [ SD I 47-8.]  

Amanasa          .           Mindless.  Early races of this Earth.

Amitabha          .           "Boundless Space."  Parabrahmam. [Voice 72 ]

Amrita  .           .           Waters of Immortality obtained by spiritual cultivation, lower nature is subdued.  Soma-juice. Ambrosia. Elixir. Deathless.

Amsa   .           .           Broken.  A fragment.

Anadi   .           .           Beginningless.

Anahata Chakra         Plexus above the Heart.  Symbolic center of the human being.  Life-giver.

Ananda .           .           Contentment.  Bliss.  Confidence in the  Justice of Universal Law.  Spiritual.

Ananda Katha   .           Egg-shell surrounding Brahma.  Space wherein  our universe is enclosed. [ SD I 142.]

Ananda-maya-kosha      Atma-Buddhi.  Spiritual Soul.  Formless.

Ananta-Sesha   .           Infinite.  (Serpent symbol: biting its tail.)

Ananta-Vijaya   .           Conqueror of the Infinite.  Immortal.

Ananya Bhakti  .           Exclusive devotion to the Supreme Spirit.

Anatma            .                       Non-atma.  Non-eternal.  Untrue.

Anda    .           .           Egg.  (see Hiranyagarbha, Ananda-Katha)  

Andarshanam    .           Invisible.  Cannot be seen physically.

Angaraka          .           Fire Star.  Mars.  [Migmar--Tibetan.]

Angiras .           .           A Prajapati. (Creator).  Son of Daksha. 

Angirasas         .           Class of Pitris.  Ancestors of man.  Generic name of several Puranic sages.

Anitya  .           .           Temporary, not ever-lasting.

Annamayakosha            Physical body, made of anna=food. Sthula-Sarira.  A "principle," or "sheath."

Antah-karana    .           Thread or channel of communication between

(Antaskarna)                  Higher Manas--"Inner cause"-- and the  Lower Manas, which is an "effect." Lower Manas “reflects” the Higher Manas, if the surface is sullied or dusty, then  the faulty reflection gives trouble.  Pathway between the head and the Heart. Seat of thought and feeling.  At death  it is destroyed as a Path or medium of  communication and its remains survive for a while as the Kamarupa -- the  "shell."  Only the noble aspirations,  feelings of lower Manas are retained in the  immortal record. [ see "Causal Body" ]

Anu      .           .           Atom.  Title of Brahmaa. Also the Infinite  Universe.  Every "atom" enshrines Spirit

ANUGITA       .           Discourse between Krishna and Arjuna after  Kurukshetra battle.  Arjuna had forgot ten.  An "after-song."  Very occult.

Anumantha       .           Decision maker or one who consents.

Anumati            .           Full moon.  Soma transforms into a goddess.

Anupadaka       .           Parentless.  Title of Highest Adepts.  Self-created Gods, the Dhyani Buddhas.

Anuttara           .           Peerless.  Unrivaled.  Highest.  One.

Anyamsan Aniyasam     "Smallest of the small."  Most atomic of the atomic.  Monad.  Force.  Applied to the Universal life -- Deity. Omnipresent.

Ap        .           .           Water, air.  An intermediate region.

Apana  .           .           Inspiration and expiration breath. Prana = expiration breath.  Vital wind.

Aparinamin       .           Immutable.  Unchangeable.

Aparoksha        .           Direct perception.

Apava  .           .           Title of Vishnu and Brahma combined.   "Sporter in the Water."  Dividing, Viraj, then Manus are formed.

Apavarga          .           Emancipation from rebirth.

Apsaras            .           Undine, water-nymph.  Inferior elemental forces.  Beguilers.

Arani    .           .           Aditi.  "Womb of the World."  Swastika.  Used in making fire with friction.  Perverted  into phallic meaning by materialism.

Aranyaka          .           Hermit.  Sage. a "Forest dweller."

Arasa Maram   .           Ashwatta  -- Tree of Knowledge.  Mystic word.

Archana           .           Lower-self-forgetfulness, in meditation.

Archaradi Marga           Path of Light.  Self-consciousness.

Ardhanareshwara          Androgynous.  Unpolarized state of Cosmic Energy.  Male/female symbol. Ardha-Nari. 

Argha   .           .           Womb, ark.  Crescent moon.  Cup for sacred offerings at religious ceremonies.  The Argha was a 4-fold female principle over which is the triangle shaped Flame.

Arjuna  .           .           Prince of Pandavas in India, Embodied, noble Man, Nara.  Rajasic principle in Man.  Mystically Son of Indra (Arjuna=silver-white, nara= man). (same as Orpheus). Called Partha at times, as he had "two mothers": Pritha or Kunti.  Purified aspect of the Lower Mind, aspiring to unite with Individuality-Spirit-Krishna.  Divine Spark of Spirit.

Artharati           .           One desiring Spiritual Wisdom.

Arundathi          .           Morning-Star.  Lucifer-Venus.

Arupa   .           .           Formless, bodiless, colorless. (no-color).

Aryan/s            .            Men of the Vedic Indian tribes.  Means: "Noble, Faithful."  Settled and learned wisdom from the Raja-Rishis.

Aryana .           .           First Ancestor.  The Noble.  Higher Manas.

Aryasangha      .           Founder of the first Yogacharya School.  This was later disfigured by an Ayodhian imitator who used his name.  "Assembly of the Nobles."

Aryasatyani      .           4 Noble Truths.  Buddha's teachings.

Aryavarta         .           Sacred Land of Nobles -- India.

Asana   .           .           3rd stage of Hatha Yoga.  Postures symbolizing relationships between hidden centers of power in man.  Not to be used unless one has the full system. Physical and personal purification using Hatha (elephant) form-control.

Asat     .           .           Unreal.  Non-being.  Prakriti.  Matter.

Ashrama           .           One of the 4 stages in life:  student, head of family, public servant, sannyasi-asceticism in preparation for death.

Ashtadisa          .           8-faced Space:  as an octagon and at times as a dodecahedron.

Ashta Siddhis    .           8 Powers to be acquired in the Apara-Vidya of Hatha Yoga.  Para Vidya is Raja Yoga.

Ashwatta (Aswatta)      Bo tree, ficus religiosa,  Banyan.  Tree of  Knowledge.      [ Gita, Chapter 15.]

Ashwinau         .           Twin Physicians of the Gods, Mystic fathers   of Nakula and Sahadeva, Pandava princes.

Ashwins           .           [ see Aswinau ]

Asita    .           .           Rishi and Sage.  Son of Bharata.

Asrama            .            Stage in Man's life of which there are 4.Hermitage, monastery.  Forrest dwelling.

Asta-Dasha      .           Perfect, Supreme Wisdom. 

Asura / s           .           1. Correct meaning:  a spiritual divine Being

                                     2.  Incorrect meaning:  an evil spirit or demon, hostile to Law --incorrectly derived from
                                           a = non, sura = god). Connected with Surya in Rig Veda..

Aswatama        .           "Strong like a Horse."  Son of Drona.

Aswattha Tree  .           Holy Fig tree.  Symbol of the Universe.  Bo.

(Ashwatta)                     Arasa Maram.  [ see Gita, Chapter 15 ] Tree of Wisdom.  [ Voice, p. 26fn.]

Aswinau           .           Physicians of the "gods," man's consciousness (Ashwins)in Devachan.  Esoterically:  Kumara-Egos:  reincarnating principles of man. Dawn and twilight, harbingers of Truth.

Astral Body      .           Ethereal double of all forms.  In man: "the (Linga Sarira)  astral body."  Electro-magnetic lattice    

structure on which physical molecules assemble.  Records and reflects all events, thoughts and feelings. Repository of Karmic balances.

Astral Light       .           Electro-magnetic "atmosphere," or multiple  fields which surround atoms, humans and the Universe.  Records moral Karma of all events. Lowest aspect of akasa.

Atala    .           .           Loka on an astral plane.

Atharva Veda   .           Magic incantations and formulae.  Ancient and most highly respected by the Brahmins.

Atma (Atman)  .           Universal Spirit, impersonally impartial. Root of evolution and Karma.  7th and Highest "principle" in Man. The One  Life.  Divine Monad.  Supreme Soul.

Atmabhu           .           Self-existence, as a soul.

Atmabhoda       .           Self-knowledge.  Treatise by Shankaracharya.

AtmaJnani        .           Knower of the World-Soul, or Soul in general.

(Atmajnyani)                           Knower of the One Universal SELF.

Atmanivedana   .           Surrender to the One Self with the destruction of any "sense of separateness." The devotee and the Self become One.

Atmasanyama Yoga      Discipline of control by the Higher Self.

Atma-Vidya      .           Highest form of Spiritual Knowledge.

Attavada           .           Sin of personality, of selfishness.  The belief that the Soul of a human is separate from the One Universal, Infinite  Self.    [ Voice, p. 4 fn.]

Aum     .           .           Sacred syllable.  Trinity in Unity.  Called  "the Seal of Truth." [ Voice, p. 25fn ] [see T.Glos. 44, 239-40; ISIS II 114;  Frdly. Philos, p. 106-7, WQJ Art.I p583]

Avalokiteshwara           Synthesis of the 7 Dhyani Buddhas or Dhyan Chohans.  The Higher Self in Man. The All-seeing Lord.

Avastha            .           State of consciousness, or position.

Avatara            .           Incarnation of a Divine, Perfected Adept. Responsible for guiding the evolution  of myriads of beings in the Universe.  Krishna is such an Avatara.[ Glos. 76.]

Avidya  .           .           Ignorance, Illusion.  Maya.  Mara. (a-non, vidya =knowledge).  Agnyana.

Avikara            .           Free of degeneration, changeless.  Quality of the ONE.  The UNIVERSE.

Avitchi  .           .           "Uninterrupted hell."  Myalba (our earth). State of soulless men.  Rapid reincarnation without the rest of Devachan, for which no causes have been generated.

Avyakta            .           Unrevealed cause.  Indiscrete, undifferentiated.   [Vyakta is the differentiated.]

Ayuta   .           .           100 Koti, 1 billion.  1,000,000,000

B

 Balarama          .           Krishna's elder brother.  "Child-Rama."

Bandha .           .           Fetters, the karmic bonds of ignorance and desire.  The opposite of Moksha or emancipation  and freedom.

Bala     .           .           Panchabalani. 5 Powers to be acquired through Raja Yoga: 1. full trust or faith; 2. energy;  3. memory;  4. meditation, and 5. wisdom.

Barhishad         .           Lunar Pitris, creators of the astral and the physical man.  For man to become a mental being, this personal basis had to  [ Lighting up set afire.  Manas had to be "lighted of Manas ] up."  This task was accomplished by the Promethean Kumaras, who voluntarily incarnated in physical man at a certain stage in the evolutionary program.  We, are the Manases.  At each incarnation we can see this process repeated for the children, whose minds are gradually "lit up" by their family and education.

Be-ness            .           .           Term used by Theosophists to more accurately  [ The ABSOLUTE ]    render the essential meaning of SAT.  [Parabrahmam]  The absolute Principle.  Ever-unknowable Presence. "Sensed by the highest spiritual intuition, but never to be fully    comprehended."  T. Glos. p. 53

Bhagavad Gita  .           The "Lord's Song."  A Upanishad.  It impresses upon us two things: 1. selflessness, and 2. action.  There is only One Spirit  we cannot live for ourselves alone.

Bhagavan         .           Title of Krishna and Buddha.  "Lord."

Bhagavata, (Srimad)      A Purana narrating the life of Krishna.

Bhakti   .           .           Devotion.  Trust, based on knowledge of Truth

Bhakti Yoga      .           Systemized devoted disciplines following the Vishistadwaita.  Strict performance of every duty.  Demands Wisdom be acquired.

Bharata                           The "sacrificial Fire" (Agni) kept alight in the heart of the true devotee--Arjuna.

Bhaskara          .           Sun - "Light-giver."

Bhava   .           .           State of being.  A World or a plane of consciousness.  [ see SD I 200 ]

Bhava Pushpas .           "Flowers of Sanctity."  8 : -- 

                                                1. clemency or charity; 

                                                2.  self-restraint; 

                                                3. affection (or love for others); 

                                                4. patience; 

                                                5. resignation; 

                                                6. devotion; 

                                                7. meditation; 

                                                8. veracity.

                                                [ see Meditation,  Samadhi ]

Bhavas .           .           5 states of conscious perception, receiving input from: body, senses, Manas, Buddhi and the Higher Self,    the "I."

Bhaya   .           .           Fear.

Bhokta  .           .           Enjoyer.

Bhikshu            .           "Mendicant scholar."  A monk with no possessions, wholly dependent on charity.

Bhima   .           .           Mystical son of Vayu, god of the Wind.  Air Power.  Higher Nature of personal man Literally: "Terrible."  General of the  Pandava forces at Kurukshetra.  Half-brother to Hanuman, mystically.

Bhishma           .           Grandsire of the Kurus and Pandavas.  General of the Kuru forces.  Represents the highest aspect of personal intelligence: instinct, tradition."         

Bhojas  .           .           Country near the Vindhya mountains.

Bhrigus            .           One of the 10 Maha-Rishis,  Regent of Venus, Protector of the "wind-blown" fire.

Bhumi   .           .           Our Earth.  Prithvi.  Physical consciousness.

Bhurloka           .           Terrestrial World.  One of the 14 Lokas.

Bhuta   .           .           An element, elemental, phantom, elementary. see Maha-bhuta:  5 elements ]

Bhutesa            .                       Title of Vishnu, Krishna.  "Lord of beings."

Bhut-Atma        .           Elemental vital soul, opposed to Kshetrajna.

Bhuvah .           .           Sky, akasa.

Birth     .           .           Under karma it is rebirth. [T. Glos. 79, 103]

"Black Magic"   .           [ see Magic, Black;  Sorcery ]

Bodha-Bodhi     .           Wisdom-knowledge.

Bodhi (Sambodhi)          Receptive intelligence in contradistinction to Buddhi, the potentiality of intelligence.  Universal knowledge.

Bodhi-dharma   .           Wisdom-religion, wisdom contained in Dharma (ethics, lawful duty).

Bodhisattva       .           "He whose essence (Sattva) has become inteligence (Bodhi)."  A son of the Celestial Dhyani Buddhas.

                                                            [ see Voice, p. 77-8.]

 Bodhiyanga.      .           7 branches of knowledge, (esoterically): 7 states of consciousness:  1. Smriti -memory;  2. Dharma Pravitchaya - correct understanding, discrimination of the Law;  3. Virya - energy;  4. Priti -spiritual joy; 5. Prasrabdhi - tranquility;  6. Samadhi - ecstatic contemplation;  7. Upeksha - absolute indifference.

Brahm  .           .           The Absolute.  Para-Brahmam.  Supreme, impersonal, uncognizable Principle of the Universe from the essence of which all emanates and into which all returns. All-pervading, animating the highest god as well as the smallest atom.

Brahmaa           .           Symbol of the male Creative Power.  Molds all Forms in Nature.  Exists periodically and then goes into Pralaya, and is annihilated as a form.  But the individual karma of each component persists. Sishta

Brahmachari     .           Ascetic under instruction, vowed to celibacy.

Brahma-Kalpa  .           4,320,000,000 solar years.  14 Manvantaras.

Brahmapura      .           The innermost chamber of the Heart.  The abode of the inner creative God.  A  state of moral concentration, wherefrom is generated Kundalini, the "fiery power" of change following on will.

                                                                        [ Voice, p. 10 fn.]

Brahma-Vach   .           Male/female Brahma. Vach=female Logos. Speech

Brahma Vidya   .           Knowledge of the true nature of the 2 Brahmas

Brahma Viraj    .           Brahmaa, the Universe, differentiating, produced material nature: Viraj, and spiritual intelligent Nature --Vach--which is the Logos  (word) of Deity or the manifested expression of the eternal divine Ideation. 

Brahmin (Brahmana)     A priest who observes and studies the Vedas.

Brahmanas       .           Glosses attached in explanation to the Vedas.Esoteric keys to ceremonial magic.

Brahmanaspati  .           Jupiter. Exoterically Brihaspati.

 Brahmarandhra .           10th opening of the body--crown of the head. An astral / akasic current connected with the heart. 

Brihaspati.        .           Exoteric ritualism personified.  Jupiter. The personified Guru.  Parent of Budha, Secret Wisdom.

Brihadaranyaka .           Upanishad.  Sacred and secret.

 Brihatsaman      .           Significant verse in the Samaveda.  Deals with re-evolution and preservation of wisdom.

Buddha .           .           A Sage in whom Buddhi is operative by will. Wears the Dharmakaya vesture if a "complete Buddha.  Wears the  Nirmanakaya vesture if renounces Nirvana to help mankind. 

                                                            [see Voice, p. 78fn]

Buddhi  .           .           Discrimination, wisdom.  Spiritual discernment.  Highest intellection.  Vehicle of the Spirit in Man and Nature. Intelligence that is spiritual perception. Spiritual Soul, vehicle of Atma.  Two aspects: passive, as the vehicle of Atma and active as the repository of all  [ Intuition ]  experiences;  discernment and discrimination, hence:  Intuition, and The Voice of Conscience in man's mental being. Cause of the Sushupti--dreamless sleep--state, and of Turiya-Samadhi. [ see Causal Body ].

Budha   .           .           Wise, Ancient, Awake.  Mercury. [ see Jivas ]

             C          C

Caste    .           .           Originally the system of 4 hereditary classes of man's character and capacity in India

Cataclysms       .           Periodical, by fire, water and wind.  [ see  Samvartta kalpa,  T. Glos. p. 288 ]

Causal Body     .           Buddhi, Spiritual Soul.  Direct cause of the Sushupti Dreamless sleep) consciousness leading to Turiya.  Karanopadhi. or Buddhi-Manas in action.  Causes the personality to exists under Karma.

Cause   .           .           Causeless-Cause The ABSOLUTE.  Karma of all Past--Eternal.  "The Great Breath. Atma-Buddhi in Man.  Spirit-Matter  ( Atma-Mulaprakriti) in "creation" or, manifestation.  Antaskarana, as the link between Higher Manas (cause) and Lower Manas in personality (as effect).

                                                [ see Subhava, Antahkarana ]

Chela    .           .           A Disciple of a spiritual instructor.  A student of Wisdom.

Chadayatana     .           6 gates in man for the reception of sensation (Gnyanindriyas):  Mental and spiritual equivalents to eye, nose, ear, tongue, bodily touch, embodied mind.  The whole synthesized by Buddhi-Atma.  A Nidana: . 

Chaitanya         .           .           Supreme Spirit as essence of all being.

Chakra .           .           Wheel, or discus as a weapon.  Circle. Cycle. Whirling wheel of Spiritual Will and Power in Krishna's hand: Sudarshana.

Chakshub          .           Eye.  Title of the Sun. [ T. Glos. 75, 103 ]

Chandala          .           Outcaste.  Pariah.

Chandra            .           Moon.  Soma.  [ The Sun imparts light to the moon so the Divine human Triad (Atma-Buddhi-Manas) sheds its  light on the lunar quaternary of our  Personality. ]

Chandravansa   .           Lunar Dynasty in contradistinction to the Suryavansa (Solar) [see Glos. 76.]  Man is a solar-lunar being. [Sun=Higher Manas] Importance of Krishna--a solar avatar being born in a Lunar body. {Moon = Lower Manas]

Charvaka          .           Hindu Philosopher, founder of a system said to be materialistic.  A "denier of all  but matter." [ But--what moves matter ?]

Chaturmukha    .           4 faced.  Title of Brahma.  All-seeing. Avalokiteswara--the "all-seeing Lord."

Chaturyoni       4 modes of birth decided by Karma:  1. from a womb as in man and animals;  2. from an egg, as in birds and reptiles;  3. from moisture and air-germs, as in microbesand insects;  4. by sudden self-transformation, as Bodhisattvas.
T. Glos. 79

Chekitana         .           "Intelligent."  Prince-ally of the Pandavas.

Chela    .           .           Pupil, disciple, Lanoo. "Child."

Chetana            .           Knowledge of right and wrong.  The thinking principle. Ethical/moral discrimination.Is able to weigh, because of past  experience, the effect of any proposed act. Buddhi made active as Voice of Conscience.

Chhaya .           .           Reflected image.  Shadow, shade. Astral image

Chhaya Loka    .           World of shades and astral remains. Kamaloka.

Chidagnikundum            "Fire of the Heart." Extinguishes personal desires.

Chidakasam      .           Basis or field of consciousness.

Chit      .           .           Absolute Intelligence.  Universal Perception. Immaterial and opposite of Achit.  It is eternal Spirit present in everyone.  Potential understanding.  Emanates from Para-Brahmam.  Inseparable unity of All. Abstract consciousness.

Chitkala            .           Kumaras.                      [ SD I 288 fn.]

Chitragupta       .           Divine Recorder of moral quality of all human motives (chitra=visible image, gupta=guarded, preserved, secret).

Chitta   .           .           Thought, Mind.  Reason.  The Higher Mind or Heart, considered as the seat of moral, pure, divine Consciousness.

Chyuta  .           .           The Fallen.  Applied to those Dhyanis who incarnated in physical man, "falling" into incarnation.  [ see Barishad ]

Circle   .           .           Endless time, cycles.  Spiral of evolution. Analogy and correspondence.

Conditions of Existence  [ see Gati, Jati ]  Our circumstances are directly related, through Karma, to our past living.  We created them by  our free choices.  Motive is creator.

Consciousness   .           7 and 10 states are enumerated.  In embodied  life 5 are enumerated:  1. Jagrata=waking;  2. Swapna=normal dreaming;   3. Sushupti=dreamless sleep;  4. Samad-hi=concentration and meditation;  5.Turiya=Spiritual Meditation.  The other 5 states are still higher yogic states.

Cooperation      .           The universal state of interactive existence of all beings.  Relates unit to All.

Creation                        Not a fact in Nature.  Rebirth and modifica tion of the form and intelligence of all beings proceeds universally under Karma.

"Creations"        .           7 - Mahat-tattwa, Chuta, Indriya, Mukhya, Tiriya-ksrotas, Urdhwa-ksrotas, Arva-ksrotas.

Crore    .           .           10,000,000.  Ten million.

Cycle    .           .           Many repetitive divisions of Time where analogous conditions repeat.

                                                             [Isis I 31, II 260;  SD II 68-70 ]

 [ Globes, Planes, Races, sub-Races, Family-Races are terms employed in The  Secret Doctrine to indicate vast cycles of time wherein the many qualities and powers of man's Nature are developed.  The whole is embodied in the vast Manvantaric cycle.  See SD I 152-201, Diagram on p. 200 is important. ] 

Cycles of Destruction.   [ see Samvartta Kalpa, T. Glos, p. 288 ]

             D         D

Daityas          .           Titans, Giants living in an earlier age. Descendants of Diti.

Daityaguru        .           Title of Sukra, indwelling ruler of Venus-Lucifer.  Instructor of the Giants.

Daiviprakriti      .           Synthesis of the 6 aspects of the Astral Light (The 7th).  Primeval homogeneous Light:  "Light of the Logos."  Fohat,  when differentiated. [ see Fohat ]

Dakini   .           .           Female demons, vampires.  Evil "elementals."

Daksha .           .           Son of Aditi.  A personified correlating  Creative Force acting on all the planes.

                                                            [ T. Glos. 95 ]

Dama   .           .           Self-restraint.  Restraint of senses.

Dana    .           .           Alms to mendicants.  "Charity." Charity and love immortal. [Voice p. 52]

Danava/s          .           Foes of the Gods, demons sons of Danu. Evil  Spirits. Fallen Angels. Daityas. Giants.

Danda  .           .           Cane of punishment.  Correction.  Wand.

Dangma            .           Purified Soul.  Initiate and Seer.  Mahatma.

Darshana          .           6 Schools of Indian Philosophy

                                                1.         Sankhya            Kapila-Rishi

                                                2.         Yoga                Patanjali

                                                3.         Nyaya              Gautama-Rishi

                                                4.         Vaiseshika        Kanada-Rishi

                                                5.         Purva-Mimansa   Jaimini

                                                6.         Uttara-Mimansa

                                                              or Vedanta      Vyasa/Shankara

Day/s  .           .           Hindu names of the Week-days: 

                                                1. Soma= Moon;

                                                2. Mangal=Mars;  

                                                3. Budh=Mercury; 

                                                4. Guru=Jupiter; 

                                                5.  Shukra=Venus;

                                                6.  Sani=Saturn;  

                                                7.  Ravi=Sun.

 

Dayus (Dyaus)  .           Unrevealed Deity, or That which reveals its-self only as light and the bright day.

Death   .           .           After-Death States -- [ see T. Glos. 336-7 ]

Demoniacal Nature       Isolation, Separativeness, Selfishness,  disregard of others rights and needs. Vice.

Destruction       .           Periodical cataclysms.  [ T. Glos. 288.]

Deva (Devata)  .           A personified force, or power in Nature.  A god or godling.  "Div" to shine.  Live in the 3 planes above mankind.

Devachan         .           Subjective, meditative state reviewing the (Deva-stan) noble aspects of the last life, between [Sukhavati]  two lives.  "Dwelling of the Gods."

                                                            [ see T. Glos. pp. 98, 336-7 ]

Deva Sarga       .           Creation:  origin of the "principles" or Intelligence, born of the Gunas.

Devajnanas       .           Higher beings possessing divine knowledge.

Devadatta         .           Conch-shell of Arjuna. "God-given."  A vital air.

Devaki  .           .           Mother of Krishna.

Devala  .           .           Vedic Rishi and Sage.

Devalokas .       .           7 Superior spheres, abodes of the "Gods."

Devamatri         .           Title of Aditi, mother of gods. Mystic space.

Devanagri         .           Sanskrit writing characters.  Phonetic. "Divine city writing."  Kept a secret.

Deva-Rishi        .           Divine Sage.  God-like Saints.

Dhammapada    .           "Footfalls of the Law."  Words spoken by Gautama the Buddha.

Dhananjaya       .           Arjuna's title.  "Conqueror, or despiser of  wealth."  A vital air.  Epithet of Soma (moon).  Passionless.  Liberal.

Dharana           .           Steadfast concentration, meditation.  Atten tion. It is the intense and perfect con-centration of the mind upon some one  interior object, accompanied by a complete abstraction from everything pertaining to the external Universe, or the world of the senses. [ Voice, p. 1 fn ]

Dharani            .           Mantra.  Sacred verse. Occult power resides in the accent, sound and will.

Dharma            .           Lawful Duty.  Responsibility and Devotion. The "universal ethical reason why."

Dharma-chakra .           "The Wheel of the Good Law." Cycle of rebirth

Dharma-kaya    .           "Vesture of bliss."  [ see Voice, p. 77fn. ]

Dharma-kshetra            Kuruksthetra - the field of conflict between man's virtues and vices in each incarnation.  The personality and psyche.

Dhrishtaketu     .           "Bold Brightness."  King of the Cedis.

Dhristadyumna  .           Twin brother of Draupadi, wife of the Pandava princes.  "Bold Splendor."  Commander in Chief of the Pandava armies.

Dhritarashtra     .           King of the Kurus. Blind matter.  Delegates rulership to son Duryodhana.  Physical body. (dhrita=firm, rashtra=country). Body acquired by the Monad pursuing its evolutionary journey;  mortal envelope  brought by Tanha, or thirst for life.

Dhriti    .           .           Patience.  Steadfastness.  Control.

Dhruva .           .           Pole-star. ("Immovable.")

Dhukti (Dukh)   .           Pain.  Injury.  Decay.  Hurt and damage.

Dhyan Chohans .           Lords of Wisdom.  Sages responsible for supervision of the Kosmos.

Dhyana .           .           Abstract Contemplation.  Meditation.  6 stages of Divine intuition.  Constant perception of the SAT, the Universal.        [ Voice p. 21fn; 53, 66, 70.] 

Dhyani Buddha .           Spiritually Awakened.  Wise.  7 or 10 in  number.  First emanations from Avalokiteshwara.

Dhyani Pasa     .           "Rope of the Dhyanis."  The "Ring Pass-not."

                                                            SD I 90 120;  II 34, 179

Digambara        .           "Air-clad mendicant or ascetic."  "Clothed with Space."  Title of Siva-Rudra.

Dik (Dig)          .           Space.  A cardinal point of direction.

Diksha  .           .           Rite of Initiation.  Preparation for Sacri ficial rite.  Second-birth.  Wife of Soma (moon).

Disciple            .           Chela.  Aspirant.  [ Qualities:  see Bhava pushpas ]

Discus  .           .           Of Krishna:  Su-darshana,   Flaming weapon.

Divya-chakshub            "           Divine Eye."  1st of 6 Abhijnas, Yogic power to see anything in the Universe.

Divya-srotra      .           "Divine Ear."  Celestial hearing - to discern the meaning of any language, and to  express oneself clearly in that.

Djati (Jati)         .           Cause of rebirth.  A Nidana.  T. Glos. 103

Doab    .           .           "Between two waters" (Jumna and Ganges)  The modern Punjab, north of India.

"Doctrine"         .           "Eye"=exoteric;  "Heart"=esoteric wisdom.

                                                                        [ see Voice, p. 25fn, 27. ]

Dorje  (see Vajra)         Weapon/instrument/wand in the hands of some gods.  Regarded as having the  power to repel evil influences by pur ifying the surrounding air.  Can be used by Black magicians also. [Voice, p. 59 ]

Dosha   .           .           Faults.  Errors.  Vices.

Draupadi           .           Yoga-maya.  Power of Illusion.  Wife of the 5   

(Drupadi)                                Pandavas.  Terrestrial, personal life.

Dravya .           .           Object.  Thing.  One of the 9 substances. (Prithvi=earth;  Ap=water;  tejas=fire; akasa= aether;  vayu=air;  kala=time; dik=space;  atma=Soul;  manas=mind). In essence, these are eternal.

 Drik-shtiti          .           Steadfastness in Meditation.  Divine Eye that visualizes the Universe.  Concentration.

Drishta .           .           Seen, perceived.

Drishti  .           .           Doubt, skepticism, unbelief.

Drisya  .           .           Visible.  Object to be seen.

Drona   .           .           "Container."  Famous warrior.  Teacher of  both Pandavas and Kurus.  Father of Asvattama.

Drupada           .           King of Panchala.  Father of Draupadi, wife (Draupada) of the Pandava princes. 

Drupadi  (Draupadi)      Mystic wife of the five Pandava brothers.

Dugpa  .           .           "Red Caps."  Tibetan sorcerer.  Black Magic. Bhons. Tantrika.  [ see "Magic, Black;  Sorcery ]

Dukkha (Dhukti).          Anguish.  Pain.  Son of Narada and Vedana.

Duryodhana      .           Kuru,  Son of Dhritarashtra.  "Dirty Fighter."  Passion.  Instigator of all the persecution of the Pandavas and all events leading to the battle.  Usurper.

Dus-charitra      .           "10 Evil acts."  Of the body:  murder, theft, adultery;  of speech:  lying, exaggeration in accusation, slander, foolish talk;  of the Lower Mind:  envy, malice or revenge, and, unbelief.

Dvaita.           .           Dualism.  Philosophical system that asserts difference between Human and Universal Spirit.

Dvapara Yuga  .           Third Yuga, Bronze age, 864,000 years.  This  yuga ended 3,102 BC. with the death of Krishna.

Dwandwa         .           Compound word in Sanskrit.  Panini defines this as words joined whereby the meaning of each is retained.

Dwesha            .           .  Anger.  One of the 3 states of mind (of a  total of 63) and  Raga - pride or evil  desire;  Moha - ignorance of truth.

Dwipa  .           .           Major division or quarter of the World.

Dzyan   .           .           Gnyan, Jnana, Dzen, Zen -- Wisdom.

             E          E

 Egg of Brahma  .           Primordial formless-form enveloping Brahma as Seed-progenitor, Creator of Universe.

                                                [ see Hiranyagarbha, Glos. 142.]

Eka      .           .           One, single, alone.

Ekana-rupa       .           The One (and Many) bodies or forms.  Deity.

Ekagrata           .           Perfect concentration on one selected object.

Emanation         .           Doctrine of, explained. [T. Glos. 113-4,  Trans. 94,  Isis II 34-5  SD I 130-1,       

                                                SD I 170fn,   S D  II 572.]

"Esoteric"          .           Secret, Occult.  As a School it is the wisdom-religion of all times and at the root of all exoteric religions or systems of morality.  [see Voice, p. 25fn.]

Eternity .           .           Stands for 100 years or Life of Brahma, a Maha-Kalpa, or 311,040,000,000,000 years

Ether    .           .           Not akasa.  Not astral light.  A material agent, not yet detected. [Trans. p. 108]

Evil       .           .                       (see Dus-tcharitra, Sorcery )

Evolution           .           (see Universe below).  Theosophy posits a double line:  material (Kurus), and spiritual (Pandavas).  Arjuna represents the immortal Spark of Spirit. T.Glos.110

Eye (Divine)     .           First of the Abhijnas-Yogic power of Universal vision. (see Chakshub)

                                                                        [ T. Glos. 75, 103 ]

"Eye Doctrine"  .           [ see Voice, p. 25fn ]

Existence          .           (see Gati, Jati )

"Exoteric"         .           Doctrine--the materialization and vulgarization of the "Esoteric" or that which deals with Truth and Reality as contrasting with the temporary and the ephemeral knowledge of our material world.

                                                                        [ see Voice, p. 25fn.] 

             F          F

 Faith     .           .           Is of two kinds:  Blind which springs from a combination of hope and ignorance; Enlightened, which springs from experience and knowledge.

Fohat  (Tibetan)                        Primordial Force.  Divine Electricity.  Law Differentiates Primordial substance with Life, Motion, Purpose, Duty.  The force of Karmic power.  Universal and indestructible.  Eternal manifestation. Active male potency, a propelling Vital Force in Nature.  Daiviprakriti.

             G          G

Gamut, Hindu    .           Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni.  (Start on Middle C, same intervals as Western Scale.)

Gandha .           .           Odor, smell, perfume, fragrance.

Gandhara/s       .           Ga, 3rd note of Hindu Gamut.

Gandhari           .           Mother of the Kurus.  Wife of Dhritarashtra.

Gandharva        .           Celestial choristers and musicians.  Guardians of the sacred Soma plant.

Gandiva            .           Arjuna's bow.  Soma (Moon) presented it to Varuna (Waters), passed to Agni (Fire) and from Agni to Arjuna.

Ganesha           .           God of Wisdom.  Karma.  Lipika.  Scribe. Son, and Chief of Siva's attendants.

Ganga (Ganges)                        Principal sacred river of North India.

Garuda .           .           Cycle of Cosmic activity.  Vehicle of Vishnu.

Gatha   .           .           Metrical chants or hymns of moral aphorisms.

Gati      (Djati, Jati)        7 conditions of existence:  3 Higher:  devas, asuras, and immortal men;  3 Lower : creatures in hell, pretas or hungry demons, and animals  (esoterically these are personalities in Kamaloka, elementals and animals.  The 7th is that of the Nirmanakaya.

Gatra    .           .           "Limbs" of Brahma, from which the "mind-born" sons and the 7 Kumaras were born.

Gayatri (Savitri) Most sacred verse addressed to the Sun.

Gharma            .                       Title of Kartikeya, War God.  "Hot."

Ghee                            Clarified butter used for food and fire sacrifice.

"Globe" .           .           Both a plane of consciousness, and the cyclic period during which the Host of Egos undergoes specific and group experience on that Plane.  The planes correspond to human "principles," and to human "States of Consciousness."
( see S D I 152-201 )      [ Globe ]                     [ Note:  Each Planet has its own series of  "Globes" and there is no interchange between the Hosts evolving on one Planet  visiting, or being exchanged with any other.  Karma places each Ego where it is lawfully to evolve and makes no arbitrary or playful changes. ]

Gnyan  (Gnana) .            Knowledge.  Wisdom.  (also Dhyana and Jnana, Dzyan, Zen).

Gnana-devas     .           Mind born sons. Our reincarnating Egos.

Gnana-sakti       .           Power of true knowledge.

Gnatha  .           .           Kosmic Ego:  Conscious, intelligent Soul of the Kosmos.

Gods     .           .           Vedic:  Agni= fire; Vayu=air;  Surya=Sun. [ correspond with the human principles: Kama, Kama-Manas, Manas, the sun of the intellect.]              [        T. Glos. 361 ]

                                                Later:  Brahma, Vishnu, Siva.

Gopala  .           .           Epithet for Krishna.  Cowherd.

Gopi/s   .           .           Shepherdesses.  Playmates and companions of Krishna.  Chief:  Radha.

Gopinath           .           Lord of the Gopis - a title of Krishna

Govinda            .           Cow-seeker.  Krishna's epithet.

Godlike Nature              Spiritual balance in Nature.  Virtue.  Cooperative sensitivity.  Ecology in life.

Grihastha          .           Householder.  Priest of exoteric ritualism.

"Guardian Wall"              Erected by the Buddhas and the Rishis to shield mankind from worse evils. [ Voice, p. 74 fn.]

Gudakesha        .           Krishna the Teacher:  giver of wisdom.

Guha    (Guhya)            Cave.  Secret.  Yogi's abode.

Gunas  .           .           Qualities or attributes of Nature in Manifestation:  Truth - Action - Indifference  (Sattva - Rajas - Tamas) see Gita, Chapters. xiv, xvii.

Gunga   .           .           Ganges river.  The Jumna is its tributary.

Gupta-Vidya.    .           Secret knowledge of mystic mantras.  Control of Nature's forces when necessary.    Secret wisdom.  Guarded. Esoteric, or secret  science, knowledge.  Guhya Vidya.

Guru     .           .           Spiritual preceptor, parent.  Worthy of honor

             H         H

 Ha        .           .           A breath.  Prana.  Outbreathing.

Hamsa (Hansa) .           Mythical swan, vehicle of Brahmaa--Cycle,  wisdom, rhythm, "Thou art That."

Hanuman          .           Son of Pavana (Wind).  A Marut.  Chief of the ape-like beings who assisted Rama.  The highest natural intelligence of the animal kingdom. "Having large jaws."

Hari      .           .           Pale yellow, golden.   The Remover of Faults. Spiritual Teacher.  Krishna.  Siva.

Harikesha         .           One of the 7 Rays of the Sun.

 Hariyaswas       .           5 and 10 thousand sons of Daksha who became Yogis as advised by Narada.  They all     incarnated in mortals.  Natural born mystics and celibates.

Hastinapura      .           City built by the Pandus.  Its ruins can still be seen around Delhi.

Hatha-Yoga      .           Discipline of the Body and the Personality. Dangerous because most disciplines required are not completed.  Discipline of mind to be removed from external objects Attainment of lower powers its aim.  Opposite of Raja-Yoga.

"Heart Doctrine"           [ see Voice, p. 25fn.]

Hemadri           .           Meru.

Heya-guna        .           Bad qualities.  Vices.

Higher Self       .           Supreme Divine Spirit overshadowing man. Atman.  "The Great Master" The equivalent of Avalokiteshwara, and the same as Adi-Buddha.  Christos with the ancient

                                                Gnostics."   [ Voice, p. 3 fn.]

Himalaya          .           Immovable.  See Himavat.  Mountain Range.

Himavat            .           Himalayas personified.  Father of Gunga.

 

              HINDU LITERATURE (ancient):

 

1.  PARA VIDYA        Esoteric, Secret Wisdom,  unrecorded, undisclosed

            |_________________________________________________

            MANIFESTATION

                        |

2.  APARA VIDYA     Exoteric Wisdom, recorded (oral, written)

            +------------+-------------+------------+--------+

      Shruti          Smriti        Purani    Itehasa      VEDAS 

       revelation    tradition     myths     history    1. Exoteric    2. Esoteric explanations  Karma Kanda  Jnana Kanda (codified by Upanishads       (Veda Vyasa)

                                                                                    I

  VEDAS                          +--------+---------+---------------+

 Named:            Rig          Sama    Yajur              Atharva

 Content:           hymns     chants    ritual              sacred incantations

 Rishi:               Brahma   Jaimini   Yajnavalkya   Vashishta, Narada, Visvamitra, etc.

 

 In All Vedas :     +---------------+----------------+--------------------+

 Content:           Mantras |    Shad Anjanis |   Aranyakas  |    Shad Darshanas

                         sound         6 Sciences         lore for            6 Philosophies

                                                                  forest                      |

                                                                  dwellers                  |

                                                +--------------------------------------+

                        SHAD DARSHANA:  6 Philosophical Demonstrations

+-----------+

|--         1.  MATERIAL         

                        Prakriti:  3 Schools

|                       +--------------------+--------------------+

| Named:           Vaisheshika         Nyaya              Purva Mimansa

| Rishi:              ( Kanada-rishi )  (Gautama-rishi)  ( Jaimini )

| Content:          Doubt,                Denial                Mantra meanings

|

|--         2.  SPIRITUAL          

                        Purusha:   3 Schools

|                       +-------------+------------------+

| Named:           Sankhya            Yoga                Uttara Mimansa (Vedanta)

|  Rishi:             (Kapila-rishi)    (Yajnavalkya)     (Badarajna, Vyasa)

|                                               (Patanjali)         (Shankaracharya)

|  Content:         Evolving            Man and God    Atman: root of Man & God

|                                                                       consciousness                                      

|                                   +--------------------------------+

+--        3.         Vedanta :        

                          +--------------------+-----------------------------+

I 3 Divisions      Dvaita              Vishistadwaita               Advaita

                        duality:              merging of                    Unity of All:

                        Man & God      Man and God in             Man is God

                        persist               a Unity                         Unity is ALL

            Other ancient Hindu Literature:

                         Asavalayana Kalpa Sutra                       Ceremonial Directory

                        Nirukta .           .           .           .           Expositions

                        Panini's Vyakarma        .           .           Grammar

                        Siksha   .           .           .           .           Phonetic Dictionary

                        Jyotisha            .           .           .           Astronomy & Astrology

                        Chhandra          .           .           .           Meter

                        Nighantu           .           .           .           Synonyms

                        Indra Gatha       .           .           .           Hymns to the Moon

                        Nara Samsi       .           .           .           Components of Man

                        Valkya Smriti Yajna      .           .           Sacrifice

                        Mahabharata/Ramayana            .           Itehasa / Epics

                        Jaimini Sutras    .           .           .           Purva Mimansa / Vedanta

                        Brahma Sutras  .           .           .           Uttara Mimansa / Vedanta

                        Upanishads       .           .           .           Explanations of esoteric

 

            [ Theosophy is a statement of facts in Nature.  As a philosophy it is eclectic and includes all in its purview.

                        It investigates all phenomena, and relates those observations to its lore, constantly checking and verifying

                        independent observations, and comparing those with the records of the past.

             [Theosophy is the combination of all of these, considered in their interrelation, the entire system of learning  and knowledge leading to all-inclusiveness.  It is the  7th System:  Sanatana Dharma, which unites them all.

      Mote:  Modern versions of the Upanishads, owing to abridgments in Akbar's reign may be inaccurate.

                        [ Theosophy v. 20, p. 19;  Theosophist V. I p. 25,

                            50, 246;  Theosophy v. 2, p. 329. ]

 ______________________________

 

Hina-Yana        .           Small Vehicle.  Exoteric Buddhism.

Hiranya            .              Radiant, golden.  Egg of Brahma.

Hiranya-Garbha             Brahmaa in the Golden Egg.  Divine, universal seed for future evolution (hiranya=gold, garbha=vesture or womb). [ see Anda ]

Hotri     .           .           Vedic priest  Officiating sacrificer to fire.

Hridaya            .            Secret Heart.  Divine Knowledge.  Essence.

Hrishikesha       .           Lord of the organs of action (karmendriyas) and organs of perception (gnyanindriyas) Ruler of the world of substance/matter.

             I           I

Ichchha            .                Desire.  Wish.

Ichchha-Sakti    .           Will power.  Sets into action the physical.

Idospati .           .           Title of Vishnu as Narayana.

Ikshwaku          .           Son of Vaivaswata-Manu.  Founder of the  Surya-Vansa (solar) Dynasty in Ayodhya. Progenitor of present mankind.

Ilavriti-Varsha               Abode of the Gods.  Centered on Meru.

Indra    .           .           Chief of the "Gods."  Personified Virtue. Signifying at times Parabrahmam. King of the sidereal Gods.

Individuality       .           The three immortal Principles in Man: Atma-Buddhi-Manas,  Spirit, Wisdom. Mind Divine EGO.  Reincarnating Ego.

Indriyas            .               Senses of perception and of action.  And the power to control these.

Indu-vansa        .           Chandra-vansa.  Lunar Dynasty.

Initiation        .           [see T. Glos. p. 156 ]  Those of purified nature, in thorough control of their personality, who are entrusted with a knowledge of the control of Nature's forces.  Wisdom and harmlessness alone lead to true Initiation.

Irdhi     .           .           Synthesis of the 10 "supernatural" occult powers.

Isa        .           .           Lord.  (Title of an Upanishad treating of  Spiritual Unity.)

Ishwara (Isvara)           The Higher Self.  Krishna "seated in the (Eshvara)  Heart of all Beings."  Atman.  A principle, abstract philosophical symbol. Higher Self.  Independent existence.

             J           J

 Jadoo    .           .           Enchantment, sorcery, black magic.

Jagaddhatri       .           Substance.  "Nurse of the World."  Sarasvati.

Jagat    .           .           Movable.  The Universe of manifested beings.

Jagat-Yoni        .           Epithet of Brahmaa.  (Jagat=world, yoni=womb)

Jaggan-Natha    .           The Spirit in the Body.  Ruler of the Form. Krishna.  Vishnu.

Jagrata .           .           Waking Consciousness.

Jaimini  .           .           Disciple of Vyasa.  Founded Purva Mimansa School of Philosophy.

Jainas (Jinas)    .           Predecessors of Buddhism.  Deny any personal supreme deity.  Believe in the eternity of matter, periodicity of the Universe, and the immortality of men's minds, as also of animals.  Very mystical sect.

Jala-rupa           .           "Water-form."  Makara (Capricorn).

Jambu-Dwipa    .           Portion of the globe under the rule of Vishnu Name of our Globe, separated from its 6 companion Globes by the plane of objectivity .  T. Glos. 162

Jamuna (Jumna)            Sister river to the West of the Ganges in North India.  Hastinapura was built on its banks.  Kurukshetra is 58 miles north of modern Delhi.

Janaka  .           .           Raja-Rishi,  Adept-king.  Proficient, simultaneously, of divine wisdom while being incarnated as an active Ruler. G. p. 25

Jana-Loka         .           Abode of manifested beings.  Intelligence.

Janardana         .           "Giver of all that Men ask."  Karma.  "Mover of men."  Karmic effect of past choices. Title of Krishna.  Gita, Ch. 3, p. 22

Janman .           .           Birth.  Present existence as linked to past  choices in previous lives.

Jati       .           .           Birth causes.  See Djati.  T. Glos. 79, 103

Jaya/s.  .           .           Victorious.  Conquering.  Name of the Sun. Class of deities: 12 great Sun-gods. Zodiacal.

Jayadratha        .           "Victorious Chariot."  King of Sindhu, near the Indus river.

Jiva      .           .           Life principle.  Living.  Monad.  Spiritual-Soul.  Vitality in the body.  Alive.

Jivan-Mukta      .           Soul which unites itself with Spirit. Becomes free to choose to isolate itself from further incarnation, or to return as a teacher of mankind. [see Voice 77 ]

Jivas     .           .           3 Classes:

1.   Nitya:  permanent enjoyers of supreme  bliss (ananda).  Karmaless.

2.   Muktas:  Permanent enjoyers of supreme bliss, free of misery and the necessity of  reincarnation (Pratyekha Buddhas).

3.   Buddhas:  Wise who choose to remain in  the world of karma, connected with matter, and who appear at the end of a         Yuga, to open the succeeding one.

Jivatma .           .           The ONE Universal LIFE.  Divine Spirit in Man.  Emancipation through Wisdom.

Jnana (Gnyan)   .           Knowledge.  Wisdom.

 Jnana-Sakti       .           Power of Intellect.  Lower Manas.  Memory and Interpretation.  SD I 292

Jnana-Yoga      .           Unity with Wisdom.  A Sage.  A Mahatma.

Jnanendriyas     .           Organs of sensation and perception.  In the (Gnyanindriyas)  astral form, which perceives physical.

Jnani (Gnyani)   .           Sage.  One possessed of Occult Wisdom.

Jumna   .           .           River Yamuna which flows by Delhi and Kurukshetra to the North.

Jupiter  .           .           "Guru,"  Brihaspati chief of instructors.

Jyotis    .           .           Light in the Head.  Star.  Fire.  Light.

Jyotisha            .                       Astronomy, astrology.  A Vedanga.

Jyotisham Jyotch           "Light of all Lights."  supreme Spirit.

Jyotsna .           .           Dawn.  A Body assumed by Brahma at the first awakening of Manvantara.

             K         K

Kabbala (Oriental)         Secret Wisdom of ancient Aryavarta--Land of the Nobles.  Magna-India.[ see Vedanta-- "The end of knowledge." ]

Kailasa .           .           "Heaven."  Abode of the Gods.  A certain  mountain range in the Himalayas, North of lake
Manasa-sarovar.

Kaivalya           .           Freedom of the Soul from the bonds of matter. Knowledge of Prakriti.  Supreme bliss.
Isolated.  Detached.

Kala     .           .           Infinite Time.  Duration.  In manifestation, Time is limited. Karmic, cyclic periods.

Kalagni .           .           Flame of time.  "Fire of fate--Karma."

Kala-Hamsa     .           Infinite Time, Parabrahmam.  "Bird out of  Space and time." A-U-M [Voice, p. 5 fn.]

Kalavingha        .           "Sweet Voiced bird of Immortality."  The Voice of our Higher Ego.  Conscience.

Kali      .           .           Originally one of the 7 tongues of flame of Agni:  "The black fiery tongue."  Parvati, consort of Siva.  Evil, wickedness.

Kaliya   .           .           5 headed snake of passion destroyed by child Krishna in the "waters of matter."

Kali Yuga                     Black, or Iron Age of 432,000 years.  Began at the death of Krishna 3,102 B.C. Karmic effects are accelerated in it. Vicious age of material advance and  spiritual darkness.

Kalki Avatar     .           Hindu equivalent of Maitreya Buddha.T. Glos, 170, 202.                                             

Kalpa   .           .           Day of Brahma. 1,000 Yugas= 432,000,000 solar years.

Kama               .           Passion, desire, lust, greed, pride, anger, Selfishness.  Egotism.  Personality.

Kamadeva        .           "First conscious all-embracing love for universal good, love and for all that live and feels, needs help and kindness, the first feeling of infinite tender compassion and mercy that arose in the consciousness of the creative ONE FORCE, (Kamadeva)  as soon as it came into life and being  as a ray from the Absolute.  A divine desire to create happiness and love. This idea perverted and degraded into sexualism in recent ages. T. Glos. 170-1

Kamadhatu       .           Includes Kamaloka, first of the Trailokya.

Kamaduk          .           "Cow of plenty."  Material effects of Karmic desire and action.  Manifestation. ( see Surabhi )

Kamaloka         .           After death state of uncontrolled passion where kama-rupic remains disintegrate. The higher Ego proceeds to Devachan.  A semi-material plane, subjective and invisible to our material senses.  [ see T. Glos. 171-2, 336-7 ]

Kama-rupa       .           Desire form.  A Human principle.  State of desire in life and after death.  The controlling influence of Manas is  absent.  A subjective form that is automatically created after physical  death from our desires, passions and the Lower Manas.  It survives the physical  body for a short time, depending on the intensity of our desires during life. This pale copy of the man that was, has no power to innovate.  Can become the  spook, or the "spirit-guide" of seances or channelers.  Can become a pernicious vampire living off the life-energy of the living, and injecting those of weak  moral power with vicious and destructive ideas.  And thus become the cause of suicide or mass-murders.  Much dreaded.

Kansa   .           .           Usurper and Tyrant.  Krishna's evil uncle. Brother to Vasudeva.  Lunar race.

Kanya  .           .           Maiden, virgin.  Kumari.  Unmarried.

Kapila-Rishi      .           Founder of the Sankhya School of philosophy. Krishna named him a "Perfect Saint."

Karana .           .           Cause.

Karanopadhi     .           The "Causal body."  Buddhi.       [ SD I 157 ]

Karana-sarira    .           The Causal Body, in which the Word is reflected--Buddhi. [ see Causal Body ]

Karanopadhi     .           Spiritual Soul,  Buddhi, vehicle of ATMA. Causal Soul, or Buddhi-Manas.

Karma  .           .           Self-adjusting Power of Universal Life. Harmony.  Contentment. Cause/Effect  balance.  Equilibrium.  Justice.  Mercy. Unselfishness.  Universality.  3 types of Karma:  1.  Praravda:  Now experienced, coming from our past choices;  2. Sanchita:  presently being generated by choices today;  and, 3.  Agami: Karma    (Karma)  stored for balancing in the future of  this life or future lives.  Cause of reincarnation and Earth-life.

Karma-Yoga     .           Wise action.  Choosing the most noble living. Holding ever in view the Supreme Spirit.

Karmendriyas   .           5 organs of action: vach=voice;  pani=hands; pada=feet;  payu=anus (excretion); and,

Karna   .           .           Born wearing a pair of Earings.  "Ear."  Son of Kunti by the Sun-God.  Half-brother  to the Pandavas, but unacknowledged.  A  Kuru.  Until the battle he was unaware of the relationship, but his honor forced him to remain with the Kurus.

Kartikeya (Kartika)       God of War.  Son of Siva. Born of the Ganges. Power of the Logos.  Mars.  Nursling of the Pleiades (Krittika).  A Kumara.

Kasi     .           .           Ancient name of Varanasi. (Banaras).

Kasyapa-Rishi   .           Self-born from Time.  Progenitor of animals. Father of the Adityas.

Keshara            .           "Sky walker." Title of Krishna.  A Yogi who can perceive all things to be known, and can travel in his astral form to places  where he is needed under Karma. [ Voice, p. 10fn. ]

Keshava           .           The "Long-haired."  Title of Krishna.

Ketu     .           .           Descending node in astronomy.  Eclipse Dragon.

"Key-note".       .           Ma or "Fa" in the West.  A General Sound of all Nature.   [ see Voice, p. 55fn.]

Khanda .           .           Chapter in Upanishads.  "Broken."

Khanda-kala     .           Finite time in contrast with Kala: infinity.

Khosa   .           .           Sheath, vehicle, principle.  In Vedic literature the lower 5 of the Man. SD I 157.

King/s   .           .           Kshatriyas. Primeval Teachers [ T.Glos 354 ]

Klesha  .           .           Love of life.  Pain, Misery.  Cleaving to existence kama or trishna.  Love of pleasure.  [ Voice, p. 75fn.]

                                                              [ see Raga, T. Glos. 273 ]

Koti      .           .           10,000,000,000.

Kratudwishas    .           Enemies of sacrifices:  Daityas, Danavas, Kinnaras -- Yogis, who were enemies of blind ritualism and priestly pretense.

Kravyad           .           Flesh-eater.  Carnivore, man or animal.

Kripa    .           .           "Pity."  Teacher of Warriors.  Adopted son of Raja Samantu.  Elder warrior and General of the Kurus for a while.

Krishna .           .           Perfected Man.  Vishnu the Preserver.  The power of the Universe in Manifestation. "The Dark One."  Ushered in the Kali- Yuga.  Died 18 February 3,102 BC.  He is the Logos, shining and teaching the personal embodied mind (Arjuna) within.  He is Intuition and Voice of Conscience. He is the Ego made one with Atma-Buddhi.              T. Glos. 76

Krita-Yuga       .           Golden, or Satya age.  1,728,000 years.  also Satya Yuga, age of purity

Krittika .           .           Pleiades.  7 nurses of Kartikeya, god of War.

Kriya    .           .           Duty, action by Vedic rule, sacrificial performance, striving for perfection.

Kriya-Sakti       .           Wise thought directing divine will into action on any plane.  Wisdom must be first obtained.
 SD I 293  II 171.

Kshanti             .           Patience, Equipoise. [ Voice, p. 52. ]    [Shanti = peace ]

Kshatriyas        .           Ruler, administrator, military caste.  Wise duty in practice.  Honor.  Courage. Primeval Teachers of the Brahmins       [ T. Glos. p. 354 ]

Kshetra            .                       The "field" of the Personality:  body, evil desires, matter.

Kshetrajna        .           "Knower of the Field."  Embodied mind-soul. (kshetra=field; Jnana=knowledge).  The eternal Individuality.  Conscious Ego in its highest aspect.  The "Lord" in us.

Kumara/s          .           7 Sons of Brahma.  Chaste Youths. "Gods" who incarnated in the "Third Race" and "refused to procreate."  3 esoteric:  Sana, Kapila, Sanatsujata, 4 exoteric;  Sanaka, Sanada, Sanatana, Sanat-Kumara--all significant qualifications of human intellect.        [ SD I 156-7 246 458-9, II 173 584-5.]     [ T. Glos. p. 289 top.]

Kumarabuddhi   .           Epithet of the human "Ego."

Kumari .           .           Virginal female.

Kundalini-Sakti              Serpentine Force (Fohat), Buddhi made active by Wisdom.  Molder of astral regions, and all forms.
[ SD I 293; II 172 ] [ see Voice, p. 10 fn., 13 ]

Kunti    .           .           Mother of the Pandavas.  Wife of Pandu.Allegory of the Spirit-Soul, Buddhi.

Kunti-bhoja       .           Chieftain allied to the Pandavas.

Kurukshetra      .           "Field of the Kurus" - near Delhi in India, (see Dharmakshetra.  Personality.)  On this "field," the two hostile forces material and spiritual, in man face each other.  Any individual who faces his lower nature to control it is faced with a similar war of inner faculties  and tendencies built up over the past.

Kuru/s  .           .           Evil cousins of the Pandavas.  Passions and Desires unmoderated by reason. Material  side of evolution.  First developed, they acquire power on the material plane and usurp the powers of the true ruler:  Spirit.  Spirit is temporarily  banished from its kingdom, and from  governing man's progress.  We are in that state now.  Kurukshetra war is  the evolutionary struggle for mastery  between the lawful and constructive and the destructive, Spirit and MatterPhilosophically, the Personality which is born and dies, makes Karma, and is the area where the learning of the Laws of the Universe tales place. [Gita, 1fn]

Kusa    .           .           .Sacred Grass, aromatic, has occult and magnetic properties, poa cynosuroides.

Kusadwipa        .           One of the 7 island continents on our World.

Kusala  .           .           Merit.  Puniya. One half of Karma.

Kusumakara     .           Springtime.  Time of flowers.

Kutastha           .           .Philosophical axiom.  Immovable, unaffected, Perpetually and universally the same.
 (kuta=summit;  stha=standing).

Kuvera .           .           God of "Hades like Pluto," misers and wealth. An evil demon.

             L          L

 Lajja     .           .           Modesty.  Daughter of Daksha.

Lakh     .           .           100,000

Lakshmi            .           Sign of prosperity, "good karma," Goddess. Wife of Vishnu. 

Lanka   .           .           Ceylon.  Invaded by Rama in search of Sita.

Lankrika           .           Psycho-physiological powers developed by physiological disciplines of Hatha Yoga.

Lanoo   .           .           Chela, disciple,

Laya     .           .           Passive.  At rest.  Neutral center.  Passivity in the mind is an obstacle to concentration and meditation.

Lha      .           .           Adepts, Chohans, Mahtmas,

Lhamayin          .           Elemental beings antagonistic to mankind. "Evil spirits."      [ Voice, p. 63fn. ]

Lila       .           .           Sort, pastime.  Circle dance.

Linga (Lingham)            Symbol of abstract creation.  Force becomes the organ of procreation only on this Earth.  Degraded symbol in recent ages. Divine force.

Linga-sarira      .           Astral form on which physical is concreted.

Loka/s  .           .           World, plane or sphere.  7 :

                                                pitri-loka;

                                                marut-loka;

                                                mahar-loka;

                                                janar-loka;

(Loka)                                      tapar-loka of the 7 Sages; Brahma-loka, or satya-loka of infinite truth, and Go-loka of Krishna, called indestructible.

Loka Pala         .           4 Maharajas.  Supporters and guardians of the World.  Guardians of the 8 cardinal directions (points).

"Loss of the Soul."         Through viciousness and sorcery the Lower Mind severs its link to the Higher Self. The Antaskarana is destroyed.  The Monad (Atma-Buddhi) is forced to leave the guardianship of that personality, which then proceeds to disintegrate over centuries of suffering and evil doing. Becomes a scourge to mankind.  Dugpa. Sorcerer.  "Dweller on the Threshold. "Those of "demoniacal nature." [ B. Gita, Chapter 16 ]

Lunar Pitris       .           Creators of our human bodies and the lower "principles," (astral, prana, kama). The "Barishad" Pitris.

             M         M

 Ma       .           .           Mother.  A title of Lakshmi.  –middle note of Hindu gamut

Madhava          .           "Honey made."  Title of Krishna.  Month of  April.

Madhavacharya                        Philosopher taught that the relation between Deity and man was that of Master to servant. Commentaries on Purva-Mimansa of Jaimini-rishi.

Madhu  .           .           Demon of darkness slain by Krishna.  "Honey."

Madhu-sadana  .           "Slayer of Madhu," a title of Krishna.

Madhya            .           Ten thousand billions.

Madhyama        .           .Beginningless and endless.  Vach-Sound-Word exists in this state, is eternal. "Ma" - 4th note of the Hindu gamut.

Madhyamikas    .           Sect of Hindu atheists.  A later school  teaching sophistic nihilism.

Madhyastha      .           Neutral, balanced, unconcerned, indifferent.

Maga    .           .           Ancient priests of the Sun.  Mage derived from this.  Maha-atma (the Great Soul, or Spirit) had its priests in ancient times.  Later: Magi of Iran and Chaldea.

Magic   .           .           [ see T. Glos. p. 197-8 ]

Magic, Black     .           Sorcery, abuse of powers.  Subjugates other persons to its will. Tyranny, mental and moral as well as physical.  Destructive and selfish.  Leads to degradation and ultimately to "Loss of the Soul."
[ see "Sorcery" below;  Voice, p. 56fn.]

Magic, White    .           Beneficent, divine  Magic devoid of any selfishness, love of power, or ambition; bent only on doing good to the world in general and to one's neighbor.  The smallest attempt to use one's abnormal powers for the gratification of self,   makes these powers sorcery or black magic.              T. Glos. 198

Mahabhutas      .           5 great elements: aether (akasa), air, fire,  water and earth.

Mahabharata     .           Epic of the House of Bharata.  The Bhagavad Gita is an Upanishad associated with the final balancing and adjustment of the evolutionary progress of man's intelligence (mind), as he passes from intellectualism to spiritual responsibility.

Maha-Buddhi    .           Mahat.  Intelligent Soul of the World.  First of the 7 Prakritis.

Maha Chohan   .           Chief of a school of Occultism.  Head of the trans-Himalayan mystics. Brahm-atman.

Maha Deva       .           Great God.  A title of Siva.

Maha Guru       .           Great Teacher.  Initiator.

Maha Kala        .           Great Time.  Siva--the Destroyer, and of Vishnu, the Preserver.

Maha Kalpa      .           311,040,000,000,000 solar years - 100 years of Brahma's life.

Maha Maya      .           The Great Illusion of manifestation.  Lack of stability or of continuity.  Gautama Buddha's Mother's name.

Maha Pralaya   .           Opposite of Maha-Manvantara.  Great Night of  dissolution followed by "Day of Brahma" Rest and sleep for the Universe until the Karmic energy remaining unresolved from the past causes it to reappear.

Maha Purusha   .           Supreme Spirit.  Title of Vishnu-Krishna. He who never Sleeps.  Who preserves under Karma, during Pralaya, the impulse for future Manvantaras.  The never-ending Universal Evolutionary Force.

Maha Raja        .           Great King.

Maha Sunyata   .           Space, void, chaos.  Eternal Law.

Mahat   .           .           Universal Mind.  The "Great One."  The first Principle of Universal Intelligence and Consciousness.  The first product of root-nature of Pradhana or Mulaprakriti. The Producer of Manas, the thinking principle, and of the sense of "I-ness,"  or Ahankara, egotism, the feeling of "I am I" in Lower Manas.

Mahatma          .           Great Soul.  A High Adept fully Initiated into Moral Wisdom.  One with the Universal Spirit.  He lives unimpeded by the "man-of-flesh."  They are of several  degrees commensurate with their own  spiritual evolution.  A Nirmanakaya is a Mahatma without a physical body.  He  lives and works on the Astral Plane.

Mahatmya        .           Magnanimity.

 Maha-towarat   .           "Greater than the greatest of spheres." Applied to Parabrahmam.

Maha Vidya      .           Esoteric Science.  Only available to the highest Initiates which embraces universal knowledge, and compassion.

Maha-Vishnu    .           Universal Wisdom.  Spiritual Person.  An entity responsible for a whole plane of manifestation.  Embodiment of the Law of Karma.  Justice.  Impartiality.  compassion for all.  Divine Instructor.  Not a Personal God.

Maha Yuga       .           Aggregate of the 4 Yugas, totaling 4,320,000 years. a "Day of Brahma."

Maheshwara     .           Great Lord, the Supreme Spirit.

Mahima            .           Siddhi, power of consciousness expanded to include the whole Universe in every aspect.  All-inclusive.  Timeless.

Mahoraga         .           Sesha,  "Great Serpent." Great pulse of time.

Mahayana         .           "Great Vehicle."  Mystical School.  System founded by Nagarjuna, 2nd Cent. BC.

Maitreya Buddha           Same as Kalki Avatar of Hindus.  T. Glos. 202.

Makara .           .           Capricorn.  Whale.  Crocodile.  Mystic class of devas.  Vehicle of Varuna, water-god.

Makara-Ketu    .           Kama, god of love and desire.

Makaram          .           A pentagon, 5-pointed star.  5 points of man.

Makaras           .           5 "M"s of the Tantrikas.

Man     .           .           A Solar-Lunar being at the crossroads of  evolution.  T. Glos. 76

Manas  .           .           Mind, the Thinking reincarnating Principle. Distinguishes human from animal consciousness.  The Higher Ego. Buddhi-Manas is the Spiritual Soul. Kama-Manas is the animal soul in man. [ T. Glos. 202-3;  Voice, p. 34fn ]

Manas, Kama   .           "Mind of desire."  The "human-animal soul. "An Indriya or organ of perception rooted in the lower senses.       T. Glos. 202-3

Manas, Higher  .           The "Higher Ego," directly related to  Vignana, a perfect knowledge of all forms of lower knowledge, whether relating to subject or object.  A Nidana.

Manasa-Putras  .           Mind-born sons.  The Kumaras.

Manasa-rupa     .           The mind-body, Manomaya-kosha, The Individuality, the reincarnating Ego.

Manasa Sanyama          Perfect concentration of the Mind. (Patanjali)

Manas Sutratma            Manas-mind, and "Thread-soul."  A synonym of our Ego, the reincarnating Self.

 Manas Taijasi    .           "Radiant Manas."  State of the Higher Ego. Realized only by high metaphysicians.    

                                                See Buddhi-Taijasi.

Manasa (Manaswin)      "Efflux of the divine Mind."  Divine sons of Brahma-Viraj.  Mano-matra-sarira. Arupa Pitris, identical with Kumara, Vairajya, Manasa-putras, human "Egos."

Manava            .         Mind-Soul resident in a human being.  District of ancient India.  A weapon used by Rama, "of Manu."                      Manava Dharma Shastra 

Manu-Smriti --             Code of law and behavior.

Mandala           .           Circle, 10 division of the Veda.

Mandakini         .           Heavenly Ganga - Ganges.

Manipushpaka   .           Conch shell of Sahadeva, Twin of Nakula."Pearl-white flower."

Mano-dhatu      .           "World of the Mind."  Faculties as well as a mental plane.  Each human has his own manodhatu, proportionate to his development, beyond which he can only proceed by studying and developing his own higher, moral and spiritual faculties in one of the higher spheres of thought.

Mano-maya-kosha         Sheath (kosha) of the Manomaya - combined  4th and 5th principles:  Kama-Manas. Dual Manas: Kama-Manas, & Buddhi-Manas.

Mantra (Mantram)        Sacred sound or text.  Word backed by thought and will. Moral power determines result.

Mantrika-Sakti  .           Power of Sound (akasa) moved by Wisdom. The Word in use.  SD I 293

Manjusri           .           God of Wisdom.  A certain Dhyan Chohan.

Manu                .           Ancient Law-giver.  A Great Adept. A Rishi. Collective humanity.  Mind-beings.  Swayambhu-"the self-existent Logos."

Manu Svayambhuva      Heavenly man.  Synthesis of the 14 Manus.

Manus  .           .           14 patrons, or guardians of racial cycles. Primeval: 7, in Puranas 14.

Manushi Buddhas          Human Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, or incarnated Dhyan Chohans.  Mahatmas.

Manvantara      .           A period of 4,320,000,000 years--the "life" of Manu [man].  Period of evolution between two Pralayas.  SD II 68-70

Mara                .           Illusion leading to death (of the Soul).  Tempter.  Seducer.  Evil choice of our past.  "Bad-Karma."

Marga  .           .           Path.  Primeval:  7-fold path to wisdom. [see T. Glos. p. 288; Voice, p. 14fn ]

Margashirsha    .           Month of the Hindu calendar. "Best of months" (Deer-head).  Mrigu=deer;  shirsha=head.

 Marichi .           .           Mind-born son of Brahma.  Light.  Parent of  Surya, the Sun, and direct ancestor of Maha-Kasyapa. 

Marichi-Deva            , chief of  the Maruts, one of the 7 primeval Rishi.

Marttanda         .           Sun.  An aditya.

Marut/s .           .           Storm-gods, companions of Indra.  Action. Power of Karmic evolution.

Marut-Jivas       .           Monads of Adepts who have obtained final liberation, but who elect to reincarnate on Earth to assist humanity in its progress.  Not the same as the Nirmanakayas who are far higher.  (SD II 79-80, 615)

"Master Soul"    .           Alaya.              [ see Voice, p. 54fn.]

Materialism       .           [ see Vaibhashika,  T. Glos pp. 357-8 ]

Matra   .           .           "A twinkling of the Eye."  Briefest period, as applied to sounds.  The "quantity" of a Sanskrit syllable.

Matri Padma     .           Mother-Lotus.  The womb of Nature.

Matri-Svan        .           "Fire elementals." Who bring fire-agni to the  Bhrigus, the "consumers."

Matris   .           .           7 Divine Mothers.  Female aspects of Gods.

Matsya .           .           Fish.  Matsya-avatar of Vishnu.

Matter/Substance          Forms aggregated around any one of the many  life-Centers on many planes visible and invisible.  Intelligence is associated  with forms (prakriti).

Maya                .           The Illusions caused by States of Matter.Spiritual powers acting through forms assembled by Karma, produce a temporary sense of "I" (ahankara).  The cosmic power which renders phenomenal existence and the perceptions thereof possible. In Hindu philosophy that alone which is changeless and eternal is called reality:  all that which is subject to change through decay and differentiation, and which has therefore, a beginning and an end, is regarded as Maya--illusion.           Prakriti--matter.

Maya Moha      .           Illusive form assumed by Vishnu.

Mayavi Rupa    .           "Illusive form."  (see Keshara)

Mayavi Upadhi  .           Illusive phenomenal appearance.

Meru    .           .           Celestial Mountain, abode of Sages.  Hyperborean continent, now unseen. Hemadri. Center of the North Pole, on the first Continent of our Earth after solidity.

Migmar .           .           Mars.

Mimansa           .           Darshana of philosophy which denies the doctrine of free-will.  Jaimini founder.

Mlechchha        .           .Foreigner, outcasts, non-Aryans.

Moha    .           .           Delusion that physical world is the only reality.  Dullness, lack of perception, Mental delusion.

Moksha            ..                      Emancipation from Ignorance.  Freedom from illusion created by Matter's illusions. No longer subject to Karma, but those who attain may return at will to assist Nirvana.  Bliss and rest for the Pilgrim

Monad  .           .           Non-dimensional force not physical.  Life-atom, elemental, spirit, Ego.  Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or Atma-Buddhi.  Immortal part of Man which reincarnating in the lower kingdoms and gradually progressing through them to Man, finds thence the  way to the final goal--Nirvana.

Moon    .           ..          Soma.  [ see Lunar Pitri ]  Zodiac divided into the 28 Lunar asterisms.  Chandra.

Motion  .           .           Svara. The One Life. Abstract eternal motion.

Mudra. .           .           Occult signs made with the hands and fingers.  Imitate ancient Sanskrit characters.

Mrishi   .           .           Chief of the gods of the Air, Wind.

Mukti (Mukta)   .           Freedom from karmic bonds and physical existence, deliverance, salvation.  Moksha.

Mula-prakriti     .           Root-matter, Maha-Buddhi, First emanation of  Parabrahmam, undifferentiated.  Monadic-Essence.  Feminine principle.  Akasa.

Mumuk-shatwa .           Desire for liberation from desire, thraldom of reincarnation in matter.

Mundaka Upanishad      A work of high antiquity.  Esoteric doctrine.

Muni     .           ..          Ascetic.  Saint.  Sage.  Mahatma.  Wise Man.

Murari  .           .           Title of Vishnu.  "Enemy of Mura-asura."

Murti    .           .           Image, form, sign.

Murti-mat         .           .           Innate principle in something else, like the  wetness of water.  Coexistent.

Myalba .           .           Our Earth, called Hell in esoteric philosophy There is no place of punishment other than a man-bearing planet or earth. Avitchi is a state, not a locality.

                                                                        [ Voice, p. 79fn.]

Mysteries          ..          In every country these were a means of dramatic performances (as the enactment of the Mahabharata, and the Ramayana still are in India), in which mysteries of Cosmogony and nature in general were personified by the priests and neophytes, who enacted the parts of various gods and goddesses, repeating supposed scenes (allegories) from their respec- tive lives.  These were explained in their hidden meaning to the candidates for initiation and incorporated into philosophical doctrines.  Mystery is derived from the Greek word muo, "to close the mouth," and every symbol connected with them had a hidden meaning as is to be found in the B. Gita.   [ see ISIS II 113-117. ]

             N         N

 Nabhi   .           .           Father of Bharata.

Nadavindu Upanishad    [ see Voice, p. 5 fn. ]  "Nadabindu(?)"

Nadi     .           .           Nerve, artery, vein.

Naga    .           .           Serpent.  Symbol of Wisdom. "7", Initiate.Ananta, their Chief.

Naimittika         .           Occasional, incidental.

Nakshatra         .           Star.  28 Lunar Houses of Hindu Zodiac.

Nakula  .           .           Twin brother of Sahadeva.  Mystical father one of the Aswins, one of the divine horsemen who pull the Chariot of the Sun at Ushas-Dawn.  Pandava prince.

Nama   .           .           Name.

Nanda  .           .           Chief of the cowherds in Gokul.  Foster-father of Krishna.

Nandi   .           .           Sacred bull, vehicle of Siva.

Nandini .           .           Daughter of Surabhi, the "cow of plenty."

Nara     .           .           Man.  A hero.  Title of Arjuna.  Original eternal Man.

Nara-Sinha       .           Man-Lion, and Avatar of Vishnu-Krishna.

Narada .           .           A primeval Rishi.  Son of Brahma.  Ruler of Karmic events and cycles.  A personification of the human cycle, a Dhyan  Chohan.  Deva Brahma. Invented the Vina. A lawgiver.

Naraka .           .           State where the Jivatma-Soul is subjected by his karma to pain as a result of evil choices.  Retribution on Earth, where  evil and selfish choices were made. "Hell," 8 cold and 8 hot - emblems of  the septenary chain of Globes, with the addition of the "eighth sphere."  Hell is our Earth, Myalba.

 Narayana                      "Mover on the waters of Space."  Superior  Man.  Title of Krishna.  Vishnu as the  Holy Spirit moving on the "Waters of Creation."  Primeval manifestation of the Life-Principle, spreading out into infinite Space. 

Nastika .           .           Atheist.  Rejector of gods and idols.

Natya-narakikas            Those who annihilate their Sutratma, the connection between Higher and Lower Manas, by selfish and evil choices.  Dugpas.

Nava Nidhi       .           9 Jewels.  Consummation of spiritual development.

Nava Vidha Bhakti        9 stages of discipline through which the chela-devotee ascends to "Perfection."

Nath                 .           Lord.  Protector.  Ruler.

Nidana  .           .           12 causes of existence, chain of causation  [ see  T. Glos. 229 for list ]

Nidhi    .           .           9 treasures of Kuvera, Vedic Satan.  Objects of worship by Tantrikas.

Nididhyasa        .           Mental abstraction, profound meditation and  contemplation.

Nidra    .           .           Sleep.  Female aspect of Brahma.

Nila      .           .           Blue.

Nilakantha        .           "Blue throat."  Name of Siva.

Nimitta .           .           Inner illumination through meditation.  Spiritual cause as contrasted with Upadana, the material cause.  Pradhana.

Nir-Guna          .           Devoid of attributes or qualities.  Escape by Wisdom and moral action from evil. Impersonality.  Transcendental.

Nirmala            .           Free from love, hate, emotion.

Nirmanakaya/s  .           Mahatmas, Great Souls, free of Karma.  Can enter Nirvana, but voluntarily relinquish, by an act of self-sacrifice, this state to help mankind in an invisible yet most effective manner, using an akasic body.  He becomes a member of   that Host which ever protects and watch es over Humanity within Karmic limits. He is ever a protecting, compassionate,    verily a guardian angel to him who is worthy of his help. [ T. Glos. p. 231 ] [see Voice, p. 69fn, 74fn, 77-78fn.]

Nirvana            .           Extinguishment of selfish desire.  Peace. Illusions of Matter annihilated.  Freedom from any earthly desire or passion.  It is a state of absolute existence and absolute consciousness, into  which the Ego of man who has reached the highest degree of perfection and holy-ness during life, goes after the body dies.  Conscious repose in omniscience. 
 [T. Glos, p 232; Voice. 77-8 fn ]

Nirvanee           .           Emancipated Soul.  "Escape from misery" of  a material form.  Freedom from Klesha  (passion), or Kama (desire), and the complete annihilation of animal desires. Abhidharma defines Nirvana.  But the Bodhisattva who chooses the Nirmanakayic  vesture over the Dharmakaya stands higher in popular esteem than a Nirvanee.  [ see Voice, pp. 77-8 fn ]

Nir-Vikara        .           Formless.

Nishada            .           Ni 7th note of the Hindu gamut. A quality of sound - Akasa.

Nishkama Karma          Performing life's duties unselfishly, with-out hoping for results (attachment).

Nish-Karma      .           Karma-less.

Niti       .           .           Prudence, ethics.

Nitya    .           .           Constant action,  Change.  Always moving. Symbolic of evolution process.

Nitya-anitya Viveka       Discrimination between the real and the  unreal.

Nityamuktas      .           Those deserving admittance to Vaikunta,  abode of Vishnu.

Nitya Parivrita               "Continuous extinction." 

Nitya-Pralaya    .           Constant dissolution.  Perceptible and imperceptible changes, regulated by Karma governs all being in manifestation.

Nitya Sarga       .           Constant creation or evolution.  Assembly of atoms, molecules, cells, etc...

Nitya-samsarikas           Those who bind themselves by Karmic choice to return to the round of birth and death on Earth.

Nivritti Dharma             Disciplines and duties, self-imposed, to achieve freedom from the bondage of Maya
 [ see Pravritti Dharma/Marga ]

Nivritti-marga    .           Path of Light.  Uttarayana, "The Sun's Northern course."

Niyama .           .           Obligation.  Voluntary asceticism or penance.

Notes (musical).            [see Hindu Gamut] Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni.  [ see Sound;  Voice, p. 11 - mystic. ]

                                                Key-note: Ma (fa)  [ Voice, p. 55fn ]

Nra-Yajna.       .           Sacrificial service of humanity. [ SD I 207 ]

Nun      .           .           Bhikshuni.  Yogini.

Nyaya  .           .           System of Logic.  Philosophy founded by Gautama-Rishi.

             O                     O

 Occult Science  .           [ see  T. Glos. p. 237 ]

Om (Aum)        .           Name of the Unknown, and unknowable Deity. It combines manifestation, preservation and resolution through the destruction of the components of all forms.  Their essence remaining untouched and continued. Pranava. Omkara  "An invocation, a benediction, an affirmation, and a promise." "The word at low breath." of occult, primitive masonry.  The sacred "triple fire" in the Universe and man.  It represents the Highest Tetraktys. Abhimanin and his 3 sons:  Pavana, Pavamana,   (Om) and Sushi, "who drinks up the water of material desires."  Udgita.

                                                            [T. Glos. p. 239-40; ISIS II 114 ]

Omkara            .                       Om.  Udgita.  Pranava.  Aum.

Omnipotence     .           The power to act everywhere.  Force. Action under law which balances all things.

Omnipresence   .           Absoluteness - Spirit present in everything.

Omniscience     .           Universal Knowledge of all events. 

Oosana .           .           Name of the Ruler of planet Venus.  Also a (Usana) mythological bard and prophet-seer.

Outcaste/s        .           [ See Tchandala/s.]      

             P                      P

 Pada     .           .           Foot.  An "abode."  "Foot-hold."

Padasevana      .           Service of following in the footsteps of the Gurus--Masters of Devotion.  4th of the 9 stages of Devotion/self-discipline.

Padmapani        .           "The lotus bearer."  Higher Manas.  Ego.

Padma  .           .           Lotus flower. Lakshmi.  Female aspect of Vishnu.

Pancha Bhutas  .           5 elements:  earth, water, fire, air and akasa (aether).

Pancha-kosha   .           5 sheaths or bodies  [ see T. Glos. 247 ]

Panchajanya     .           Krishna's Conch shell. 

Panchama         .           .Pa, 5th note of the Hindu Gamut.  Also, the "fifth caste"--outcasts, Tchandalas.

Pancha Tanmatras        5 types (rudiments) of the 5 Elements, as their subtle essence.  Devoid of limited qualities, and cause of the gross physical elements: earth, air, fire, water and aether.  In another aspect they are: smell, taste, touch, sight, hearing, the  gnyanindriyas.

Pandava-rani     .           Kunti, mother of the Pandava princes

Pandavas          .           Virtuous Cousins of the tribe of Bharata. Represent the Spiritual Individuality.

 

                                                1.         Yudhishtira -     Dharma-raja

                                                2.         Arjuna              Nara - Man

                                                3.         Bhima               General - Terrible

                                                4.         Nakula              Dawn

                                                5.         Sahadeva          Twilight

                                                 Higher principles in mankind.

 Pandita .           .           Learned Brahmin devotee.  Female scholar.

Pandu   .           .           "Pale."  Father of the five Pandavas. Wives: Kunti, Madri.  Philosophically, the part of man that is immortal.   [ Gita, p. 1fn.]

Pani      .           .           Hand.

Panini   .           .           Rishi who compiled the rules of Sanskrit Grammar.  Author of Paniniyama.

Pap      .           .           .Evil.  Sin  Destructive choice.  Leads to "hell."

Papa-purusha    .           "Man of sin."  One reborn in Avitchi.  Soulless being.  The connection between the  Higher and Lower Manas is broken.  The sinning Personality.

Para     .           .           .The "opposite shore" of the ocean of rebirth. Now completed.  Attainment of mind-manas is the first task that has consumed half of the Kalpa.  The 2nd half now begins leading to freedom from illusion-Maya. Infinite.  Supreme.  First of the four  forms of Vach (speech):  Para, Pashyanti, Madhyama, and Vaikiri. [SD I 430-4]

Para-Bhakti      .           Supreme devotion.  By this means Arjuna (man) enters into and becomes one with the  Divine Man--Krishna within him, our own Higher Self. [ATMA]

Para-Brahm      .           THE ABSOLUTE.  No qualities. The One Source.

Parabrahmam                         Unlimited, and containing All.  The Unknowable.  Attributeless. Secondless. A knowledge of this is the end and goal of  our present existence.  All embodied beings are in some stage or level of developing this knowledge and wisdom.  Man is closest to IT.  He senses the Higher  Self within him. "Beyond Brahma."  THAT.   [B. Gita  Chapers 9 and 10]

Parama-Guru    .           The Supreme Teacher in an occult sense.

Paramahamsa   .           One who has realized THAT and who has become ONE WITH IT.

Parama-padadatmava    Beyond Spirit.  Bordering on the ABSOLUTE.

Paramartha       .           Sanyasa.  Renunciation.  Informed by Wisdom.

Paramatma       .           .           Supreme Soul of the Universe.

Paramatman     .           Sutratma.  Eternal thread-Soul on which are strung successive personalities.

Paramita           .           Virtues, 6 and 10.  [ see Voice, p. 50-53.]

Parampadha      .           The supreme state, composed of Suddha-Sattva The Pure State.  Ananda.  Moksha.

Para-martha-satya         Supreme Truth.  Absolute existence. [ see opposite: Samvrittisatya ]

Para-Nirvana    .           Beyond Nirvana.  Indescribable.  Be-ness.  [ SD I 14-16, 135 ]

Parantapa         .           "Harasser of thy Foes."  Title of Arjuna, the man of discipline who fights to control  his inner "Kurus" his passions and desires--Personality.

Para-para         .           Boundary of boundaries -- infinity.

Para-prakriti      .           Daiviprakriti.

Para-sakti         .           Power of ATMA working through Buddhi, energizing Manas and propelling manifestation through Karmic concatenation of the (Para-sakti)  12 Nidanas. "The great Force."  One of the 6 forces in Nature, that of light  and heat.  Glos, 229, SD I 39, 292, 509

Parasurama      .           6th avatar of Vishnu, a Puranic Sage.

Paravidya         .           Supreme knowledge.  Opposite of A-paravidya, or ignorance--because limited to the material plane, our Earth.

Parivrajaka       .           A Pilgrim, a wanderer.  Homeless.

Paroksha          .           Intellectual apprehension of a truth.

Parvati  .           .           Wife of Siva.  Uma,  Devi.  Kali.

Pashyanti          .           A division of sound.  2nd of the 4 forms of Vach (speech).  The manifestation of the Word.  Our world of manifestation.

Patala   .           .           Antipodes.  Nether-world.  South Pole.

Patanjali            .           Founder of Yoga philosophy.  700 BC.

"Path"   .           .           Mystic discipline of self-control.  Marga.  [ see Voice, p. 14fn; 22-23fn, 44fn 50fn. ]

Paundra            .           Conch shell, Trumpet of War of Bhima.

Pavaka .           .           Personified Fire.  Electric Fire.

Pavamana         .           Fire produced by friction.

Pavana .           .           God of the Wind.  Father of Hanuman.

Payu     .           .           Organ of excretion - anus.

Perfection .       .           In Man every potency of evolution is made possible.  Perfection is the purification of all lower tendencies and the enthroning of Divine spiritual motive as the basis for personal life.  Choices  are then made in accord with virtue.

Permanent Astral          [ see Hiranyamaya-kosha ]

"Personality"     .           [ see T. Glos. p. 252 ]  Lower quaternary. [ see Skandhas ]  "Shadow." [Voice, 34 ]

Pesh-Hun         .           Narada.  Karmic concatenation.

Phala    .           .           Fruit of Karma.  Results, good or bad of choices in the past.

Phalgutaya        .           The cause of the fruit of Karma -- something that is unsubstantial, that vanishes.

"Philosophy"      .           6 Schools (Demonstrations)  [ see Hindu Literature.]  The 7th synthesizes and unites them:  Sanatana Dharma, or Theosophy.

"Physical Body"             Sthula Sarira.  The "shadow" (of the Divine Man.) Constantly changing, illusory form

Pinda    .           .           Ball of food, rice offered to bhuts of the deceased.  [Shraddha and Pinda]

Pindanda           .           Microcosm.  Man.

Pingala .           .           Nervous current in the body.

Pisachas           .           Fading kamarupic remains of men in kamaloka.  Elementaries.  Disembodied souls of the depraved.

Pitar Devata     .           Father-Gods, Lunar ancestors.

Pitham  .           .           Seat of the Deity. (Location of an idol.)

Pitar     .           .           Father.

Pitri(s)  .           .           Ancestors or creators of mankind. Ourselves  as Egos in earlier incarnations.  7 classes, 3 incorporeal, 4 embodied.

Pitri Yajna        .           Sacrifice to ancestors.  Shradda & Pinda.

Planet   .           .           Hindu names of the Planets are given also to the Days of the Week.  [ see Day ]  [ Note:  see "Globes" for explanation on the evolutionary program set for each Planet  independently of every other. A. P. Sinnett's error in Esoteric Buddhism was corrected by HPB in  S D I 152-201 ]

"Planetary Spirit"           Every spiritual Ego is a ray of one of the  7 esoterically. [SD I 570-5; Voice 34fn]

Poverty .           .           Vow of, [ see Samyagajiva, T. Glos. p. 288 ]

Prabha  .           .           Brightness.  Dazzling Light.

Prabhavapyaya .           That from which all originates and into which it returns after the life-cycle.

Prachetas         .           Name of Varuna, the Water-god.  Wetness.

Pradhana          .           Undifferentiated substance.  Akasa.  Mula-Prakriti.  Primeval, root matter.

Pragna (Prajna).            Mahat.  Universal Mind.  Capacity for perception.  Consciousness.  SD I 139

Prahlada           .           Son of Hiranyakashipu--an earlier incarnation of Kansa. Vishnu assumed the form of Narasinha (man-lion) to protect his devotee, Pralhada.  A Daitya.

Prajapatis          .           Progenitors. 7 and 10.  Brahma is the synthesis of the Lords of Being.  Life-givers.  Shambhu.  Swayambhu.

Prajna (Pragnya)           One of the 4 states of consciousness: ecstatic consciousness, beyond meditation.  The spiritual consciousness of the Initiate after his 3rd Initiation.  A Paramita:  "that makes of a man a God, creating him a son of the Dhyanis."

Prakrit  .           .           A popular, materialized, dialect of Sanskrit.

Prakriti .           .           Matter.  Form.  Called Illusion and Perishable, because of constant change.  But Root-matter, Mulaprakriti, is the opposite pole to Spirit-Purusha, and both are immortal, and ever-existent.

Prajna   .           .           Paramita, which is the last stage of self-effort that creates the Bodhisattva.

                                                                        [ Voice, p. 53, 77.]

Pralaya .           .           Universal rest, "Sleep of Matter" between two Manvantaras.  Corresponds to Dreamless sleep and to Devachan between lives. The dissolution of all material forms into their components of ever-lasting  Forces on the immaterial planes.  The "death" of a planet, a Solar-system, or of the whole universe.

Pramana           .           Proof.

Pramantha        .           Accessory to producing fire by friction.

Prana(m)          .           Air.  5 kinds:  Ascending.  Descending.  Circulating.  Assimilative.  Respiration. The Breath of Life.  The Life Principle.

Pranagnihotram .           Fire sacrifice as oblation to the Spiritual Self.  "Offering up themselves in the spiritual fire of self-constraint..."

Pranamayakosha           Linga Sarira, vehicle, and Prana.  SD I 157

Pranava            .           Sacred word equivalent to Aum.

Pranayama       .           Control and restraint of breath by physical means, a Hatha Yoga exercise.

Prasad  .           .           Grace.  Also that which remains of the offerings to the Gods--which they have not  taken.  Offered by the priests to devotees visiting a temple as evidence of divine approval.

Prasthanatreya              The 10 Upanishads, Brahmasutras and B. Gita.

Pratibimbas       .           Images, reflections.  Not truth.  Maya. Illusion.

Pratishtha         .           Manifestation of the Divine.

Pratyagatma     .           Alaya, the Universal Soul.  Also a Jivatma. Ishwara.  Atma individualized.  Shabda Brahman.  Adhyatma.

Pratyaksha        .           Spiritual perception using the senses.

Pratyeka (Buddha)        [ see T. Glos. 261,  Voice, p. 47 fn. ][Pratyekha]

Pravritti Dharma           (Pravritti Marga)  The respective duties of the 4 castes (Varnas), and the 4 stages of a man's life:  student, house-holder, public-servant, ascetic (sannyasi)."The going forth into the world."  The opposite of Nivritti Marga:  the return to the One Universal Spirit.

Pravritti Marga              The path to embodied existence on Earth.  The path to spiritual darkness symbolized by  Dakshinayana, the "Left-hand Path."

Principle/s         .           Attributes of consciousness as 7 vehicles are generated in Nature and man for the Spirit's expression:

 

                    1.  Individuality   1          Atma    Spirit.  Universal Life.

                                                       2          Buddhi  Discrimination, Wisdom

                                                       3          Manas  Mind, reason, intellection, memory.

 

                   2.   Personality     4          Kama   Emotion, desire, passion.

                                                      5          Prana   Life breath, Magnetism and electricity.

                                                      6          Astral Body  Electro-magnetic sub-structure of the

                                                      7          Physical body  Gross matter.

 

                                                Spirit.  Eternal Pilgrim.  Immutable.  Opposite pole to matter.

 

                                                First Great Vedic Gods:  Agni, Vayu, Surya,  correspond to Kama, Kama-Manas, Manas.

                                                            [ T. Glos. p. 361;  SD I 157, 593 ]

Pritha   .           .           Mother of the Pandava princes and Arjuna.

Prithvi   .           .           Earth.  Bhumi.

 Pulastya            .           One of the 7 "mind-born sons" of Brahma, the reputed father of the Nagas (serpents, Initiates), and other symbolical creatures.

Puja      .           .           Worship.  Sacrifice.  Divine honors.

Pums    .           .           Spirit.  Supreme Purusha.  Man.

Punarjanma       .           Rebirth.  Power of evolving a form.

Puraka  .           .           Method of inbreathing used by Hatha Yogis.

Puranas            .                       Accounts of past achievements in many departments of history, science, medicine, etc.  18 major & 18 minor Puranas. "Ancient."

Purohit  .           .           Family priest.  Brahmin.

Purujit   .           .           Aspires to conquer to the One Self.

Pururavas         .           First producer of fire by friction of two sticks and make it triple. Son of Budha, the son of Soma (moon).  Wife:  Urvasi.

Purusha            .           Spirit.  The Eternal Person.  Nara-man. Daiviprakriti.  Heavenly Man.  Kutastha the imperishable, immortal in man.

Purushottama    .           "The best of Men."  The Supreme Spirit.  A title of Vishnu, Supreme Soul of the Universe.

Purvaja .           .           "Pregenetic."  Title of Vishnu.  (Protologos)

Purva-Mimansa .           Vedanta.  Enquiry into the foundations of the Vedas.  All-inclusive survey of the 6 philosophies as explaining reality.

Pushan .           .           The Deity in the Sun.  Our Sun is said to be a reflection of the Central Spiritual SUN of the Universe.

Pushkala           .           Palm leaf prepared for writing.

Pushkara          .           A blue lotus.

Pushpa .           .           Flower.  [ see Bhava Pushpa ]

Pushpaka          .           An aerial vehicle.

Putana  .           .           Demoness.

Putra    .           .           Son.

             Q         Q

Qualities                       3 are equilibrated in all beings:  gunas: Goodness, action, rest.

             R          R

"Race"  .                       Used as a term in describing evolution, this has no relation to the current ethnic variations, which are arbitrary and relate to physiological heredity only. True "color" or "race" (varna) relates to the invisible (physically) moral color of a person, not to his family.  In  Theosophical evolution this term is used to indicate a period of time, which is 1/7th of the passage through a "Globe" of the whole host of Monads in Evolution.  [ see SD I 152-201 ]

Radha   .           .           Chief shepherdess of Gokul.  Wife of Krishna.

Raga    .           .           .           Emotion, feeling.  One of the 5 Kleshas. Physical love.  An "obstruction" to progress on the spiritual path.

Rahasya           .           The Upanishads.  Secret essence of knowledge.  Rahu The celestial Dragon, a constellation with  Rahu at its head and Ketu at its tail.  Ascending and descending nodes in astronomy.  Eclipse.

Raja     .           .           A King.  Ruler.  Prince.

Raja-Rishi         .           Kingly Teacher.  Royal Sage.  A Mahatma. 

(Rajarshi)                                [ see Janaka ]  King-Adepts.

Raja-Yoga                    Wisdom.  Discipline of the Personality by mental, moral control. Development of  the psychic faculties under full control of the spiritual powers and in union with one's Higher Self.

Rajas    .           .           "Quality of foulness."  Activity of differentiation.  the "sundering of the One."  A Guna (quality of nature).  Form and change.  The driving power of Nature, active and bad.  [ Gita, p. 27fn.]  [ see Gita Chap. xiv, xvii ]

Rajavidya          .           The Kingly Science.  Spiritual Discipline.

Rajo-guna         .           Action, activity, living and doing.

Raka    .           .           Full-moon day.  Day for occult practices.

Raksha .           .           Amulet prepared for the full or new moon.

Rakshasa          .           Personified Evil Power.  Demons of Viciousness.  Selfishness.  Destroyers.

Rama   .           .           7th avatara of Vishnu.  Of the Solar race. Rama-Chandra.  Hero of the Ramayana.

Ramanuja-Acharya       Philosopher taught Spirit is the only Reality

Ramayana        .           Epic story of Rama and Sita.

Rasa     .           .           Essence, taste, inclination.  Circle dance. Symbol of revolution of the planets.

Rashi Chakra    .           The Zodiac.

Rasit     .           .           Wisdom.

Ratha   .           .           Chariot, Car.

Ratri     .           .           Night.

Ravana .           .           Demon-king of Lanka.  Abducted Sita from Rama

Reality  .           .           In manifestation:  3-fold--Chita=consciousness, achit=ignorance; and Ishvara=Wisdom.     Three-in-one.  Suddha-sattva or Divine Substance.  Eternal.  Allows Yogis to contemplate the concept of the ABSOLUTE.

"Reincarnating Ego"       The "Eternal Man."  Atma-Buddhi-Manas.

"Reincarnation"             [ see Monad above ]

Ribhus  .           .           Skillful workers.  Fashioners of Indra's car.

Rig Veda          .           First and most important Veda.

Rik       .           .           A verse from Rig Veda.

Riksha  .           .           Each of the 27 constellations forming the Zodiac.  A fixed star or constellation.

"Rings" .           .           Relates to 7 circlings of the Host of Monads around the 7 "Globes" which represent planes of consciousness that correspond to the 7 Universal and Human Principles. Each "Ring" consists of one passage through the 7 "Globes."  The 7-fold series of the chain of Globes is specific to each planet and all the beings evolving on it.  There is no inter-change between other Planets in the Solar System. [ see Cycles, Globes,  SD I 152-201  T. Glos. 278

Rishabha           .           First teacher of Jaina philosophy.

Rishi     .           .           Divine Perfected Man.  A Sage.  Teacher of Wisdom.  Instructor into secret wisdom that is inherent in Nature, and this exists, potentially, innate in Man. A Dhyan Chohan,  Master of Wisdom.  A  Revealer of the Mantras.

Rishi-prajapati               "Revealers." Esoterically, the highest of the hierarchy of "Builders," and Architects of the Universe. Devas, Dhyan Chohans.

Rohini   .           .           Wife of Vasudeva.  Mother of Balarama, Krishna's brother.

"Round/s"          .           [ see "Ring,"  "Globe" ]

Ruchi    .           .           Light, beauty, desire, passion.

Rudra/s .                       Storm-god, Marut.  Attendant of Siva.  Shankara is their Chief.  An aspect of Siva. Mighty ones, born of Brahma.

Rupa    .           .           Form, body. External appearance.  Color.  Shape

             S          S

 Sa Atma           .           "This is the SELF.  Shantam.  (Sat-Chit-Ananda.)

Sa eva Asamantat         "Verily, He is everywhere !"

Sabda (Shabda) .           Word or Logos.

Sabda Brahmam            ."Unmanifested Logos."  "Ethereal vibrations diffused throughout space."

Sabha   .           .           Assembly, association.

Sadaika-Rupa    .           Immutable nature.  Essence.  Changeless.

Sadasthai          .           ."He who ever IS--changeless.   To whom past, present and future are as one."

Sadatma           .           The Higher Ego.

Sadhana/s         .           Possessing richness in Virtue.  Spiritual.

Sadhana Chatushtya      4 qualifications of the Vedantin:  1. Nitya-anitya vivekha=discrimination between the real and the false;  2. Ichaloka-Paraloka vivekha=indifference to the fruit of actions in this world or in any other (as in Swarga-heaven);  3. Shat  Sampati=6 disciplines: [Shama-control of  the mind;  Dama-control of the 5 organs of knowledge (gnyanindriyas);  Uparati-tolerance of others' beliefs;  Titiksha-(endurance of karmic results from the past, in present conditions;  Sraddha   confidence, faith in the teachings of the Vedanta and the Guru;  Samadhana-placidity, composure, calm ];  and 4. Mumukshatvam=desire for freedom from the bondage of life, liberation.

Sadhu   .           .           Sage, a holy man.

Sadhyas            .           One of the names of the 12 great gods created by Brahma.  Great Sacrificers. (Zodiacal  Regents). 
 [  S D I 207-210.]

Sagara  .           .           Ocean. 

Sagardagan       .           One of the 4 paths to Nirvana.

Saha     .           .           World of suffering.  Any inhabited world in the Cosmos.

Sahadeva          .           Pandava prince, representing "water."  Twin to Nakula.  Mystical father: one of the Aswins who precede the Chariot of the Sun at Ushas (Dawn).

Saharaksha       .           Fire of the Asuras.  A son of Pavamana, one of the 3 occult fires.

Shasrara           .           1000 petaled Lotus.  Neural plexus in brain.

Saivya  .           .           King of the Sibis (Saivyas).

Saka     .           .           One, Eka.  The "Dragons of Wisdom" taken collectively.

Sakara Upasana            Concentration and meditation on the manifested Deity.

Sakha   .           .           Friend.  Mitra.

Sakhyata           .           Friendship for all creatures.  8th of the 9  stages of divine discipline.  Brother-hood.

Sakriya .           .           Mutable, changeable.

Sakshi   .           .           Witness, a student under tuition.

Sakkayaditthi     .           Delusion of personality.  Erroneous idea that the personal "I" is the Real "I".  A special man or woman, without being an inseparable part of the whole.

Sakti     .           .           Power, ability, creative.  Forces change. Free-will in action, modified by karma of past choices.  An inescapable chain. Female power/energy of the gods.  The "crown of the Astral Light."  The One Force, and the synthesis of the 6 Forces active in Nature, all making a single  Unity. Fohat. Female power of the gods.

Sama    .           .           First requirement in a disciple:  Perfect  control and mastery of the lower mind. "Resignation."  [ see Bhava Pushpa ]

Samadhana       .           Constitutionally incapable of deviating from correct action.  Knowledge and practice of karmic wisdom.  Detached Wisdom.

Samadhi            .           Abstract meditation.  Absorption in the Supreme Spirit.  Perfect adaptation to the needs of the Universe. Dharma. [ see Sampatti ]  Spiritual ecstasy. The ascetic loses the consciousness of every individuality, including his own. He becomes--the ALL. [ Voice, p. 21fn. ]

Samaj   .           .           Association, Company of philosophers.

Samajna            .           "Enlightened, luminous Sage." 

Samana            .                       Honored, good.  One of the 5 breaths, Prana.

Samanya Sarira .           Karana sarira.

Samanta Bhadra            Universal Sage.  Mahayana, Yogacharya School. Bodhisattva.

Samanta Prabhasa         Universal brightness.

Samapatti          .           Absolute concentration in Raja Yoga, by which (Sampatti) perfect indifference (sams) is reached   (apatti}.  This is to be developed before Samadhi can be entered.

Sama-veda        .           [ see Hindu Literature ]  Shastra of peace.

Samba  .           .           A son of Krishna.

Sambhanda       .           Relation.  Bonding of similarity.  Analogy.

Sambhava         .           Proportion, identity.

Sambhogakaya  .           [see Voice p. 77-8 fn., T. Glos. p. 282, 339]

Sami     .           .           Wood, from which "fire by friction" is obtained.

Samgha (Sangha)          Assembly, association.

Samkara           .           [ see Sanskara, Skandha, Samskara ]

Samma Sambuddha       Power to recall any past incarnation in all its details at will.  Reading the akasic records at will.

Sampatti           .           [ see Samapatti ]

Samsara           .           Mundane existence in this inconstant world.

Samskara          .           Moral effect of an act, feeling or thought.

(Samkara)                   Skandha - elemental, carrier of Karma.

(Skandhas)                  Tendencies of mind. [ T. Glos. p. 287 ] There are 5 types:  1.  Rupa=form, or  material qualities; 2 . Vedana=sensation, sense perceptions;  3. Sanna=abstract ideas;  4. Samkara=tendencies of mind;  and, 5. Vinnana=mental powers. Of these we are formed in our personality.  By them we are conscious of existence.  Through them we communicate with the world around us.  [ Key, p. 129 fn ]

Sampajnana      .           Power of internal illumination-wisdom.

Sampati            .           Maha or Parabrahm.

Samtan .           .           Dhyana.  Meditation.

Samvartta-kalpa            Cycles of destruction to which every root-race and sub-race is subject.  Ours, the  5th Root race will have in total cataclysms:  56 by fire, 7 by water (flood), and 1 by wind and cyclones.  T. Glos.288

Samvat .           .           Hindu chronological era.  We are now in "Vikram Samvat." which commenced over 4,000  years ago.

Samvritti           .           Origin of illusion:  false conception.  The "emptiness of all things."  Impermanence.  A source of argument between the two schools of thought.  The Madhyamikas contend that objects exist of them-selves without any cause.  the Yogacharyas logically derive any existence of a material thing from its antecedent, but invisible cause, by means of a concatenation (Nidana). [ Voice, pp. 62-3 fn.]

Samvrittisatya   .           Truth mixed with false concepts.  Reverse of absolute truth Paramarthasatya, or self-consciousness reposing in absolute Truth or Reality.  [ see Paramarthasatya ]

Samyagajiva      .           Religious mendicancy.  The correct profession.  4th Marga (path).  Vow of obligatory poverty.

Sana (Sani)       .           Planet Saturn, son of Surya and of Sanjana Spiritual Consciousness (as Chhaya).  Sanaischara - "the slow moving."

Sanat-Kumara   .           Chief of the Vaidhatra, the first of the 7 Kumaras.  Sanaka, Sanada, Sanatana, Sanat-Kumara--all significant qualifications of human intellect.  T. Glos. 289

Sanat-Sujata      .           Ambhamsi.  Chief Kumara.  "Waters of limitless Space."  Son of Amba (Aditi).

Sandhya            .           Twilight or dawn period between darkness and Sun light. Precedes, succeeds a Yuga.

Sanga   .           .           Desire to act, to choose.  Make Karma.

Sangha (Samgha).         The Order.  Assemblage.  A junction.

Sanjana .           .           Spiritual Consciousness.  Daughter of Visva-karma.  Wife of Surya (Sun).  She left  Chhaya (shadow) near him in her stead.

Sanjaya .           .           Spiritually perfected Man.  Advisor to Dhritarashtra (blind king of the physical body).  Sanjaya means, literally:  "Universally victorious."  Charioteer of Dhritarashtra at Kurukshetra.

Sankalpa           .           Selection, assimilation, correspondences. Gayatri invocation.

Sankara (Shankara)       Name of Siva.

Sankhya Doctrine          Speculation, argument, analysis and synthesis of Lower Mind thinking.  Founder: Kapila Numerical analysis, atomism, 25 Tattwas, Purusha as modified by 3 Gunas.  Pradhana (primordial homogeneous matter ) is  eternal.  Eternal self-transformation of  matter. "Sam-khya" = to count.  A system based on numerical categories.  The Universe was seen divided into 25 categories:  Avyakta = Unevolved (Absolute); Buddhi;  Amahamkara;  the 5 Tanmatras or primordial Elements from which the 5 gross Mahabhutas elements arise;  the 5 Mahabhutas; the 11 Indiyani [5 gnyan-indriya, 5 karmendriya, and Manas; and Purusha=Spirit--passive and the Spectator (Witness) of the Prakritic, creative force.
 [ Chapter 2 in B. Gita.]

Sanna   .           .           "Abstract ideas," one of the 5 Skandhas.

Sannyasa          .           [ see Sanyasa ]

Sansara.           .           .           Migration, circle of rebirth.

Sanskara (skandha)       Inclination imposed on the life-atoms which

(Samskara)                             serve as the conveyors of Karma.

Sanskrit            .           Originally never spoken in its true systemized form.  Panini gave only the approx-A "mystery language."  It  degenerated into prakrit. [T. Glos 290 ]

Santa    .           .           Placidity.  Undifferentiated state of primordial matter.

Santanu            .                       Father of Bhishma.

Santati  .           .           Progeny.

Santushtaha      .           Contented.  Calm.  Placid.

Sanyama           .           Control, restraint.  [ see Patanjali Sutras ]  Stages of Mediative control. [Voice 21f]

Sanyasa-yoga.   .           Life of asceticism and renunciation.  Passivity.  Non-action as contrasted with the Sankhya-yoga, the School of Karma-Yoga.

Sanyasi .           .           Practitioner of Sanyasa, renunciation.

Sapta    .           .           Seven - "7".

Saptarishi          .           Seven Rishis.  As Stars, those in the Great Bear. Riksha, Chitrasikandinas, "Bright-crested."  Wives:  The Pleiades.

Sarama .           .           Indra's dog.  Mother of the watch-dogs (sara-meas) of Yama (god of death).

Saranyu            .           Wife of Vivaswat and mother of Yama.

Sarasvati           .           Female sakti of Brahma.  His wife.

Sarathi  .           .           Charioteer.

Sarira   .           .           Body.  Form.

Sarisripa           .           Serpents, crawling insects, reptiles, "the infinitely small."

Sarpas  .           .           Serpents.  King:  Sesha, an aspect of Vishnu reigning in Patala.

Sarva Bhava     .           Devotion employing all 5 bhavas. [see Bhava ]

Sarva-jnana       .           Universal Knowledge and wisdom.  Stage of meditative perception superior to Pragna

Sarva Mandala  .           Egg of Brahma.

Sarvada            .           "All Sacrificing."

Sarvaga            .           The supreme "World Substance."

Sarvam Khala-vidam-brahma     "Indeed.  All this is Parabrahmam." Though itself unknowable, it is the foundation, support and cause of all manifestation around us.  Knowledge.

Sarvani .           .           [ see Mayi ]

Sarv-atma         .           Supreme Soul, all-pervading Spirit.

Sarvesha           .           Supreme Being. Controller of every action and force in the universe.

Sastra (Shastra)                        Sacred Treatise by a well-known authority.

SAT     .           .           The One, ever-present Reality in the Universe.  The Divine Essence which IS, but cannot be said to exist, as it is Absoluteness, BE-NESS itself.  Parabrahmam. The one Eternal and Absolute Reality and Truth, all the rest being illusion.

Satapatha Brahmana     [ see SD II 253 ]

Sata-rupa          .           "The hundred formed one."  Vach, the female Brahma:  Nature.

Satatam            .           .Always... (takes delight in the Self, through the Self.)

Sat-Chit-Ananda           "Be-ness, abstract consciousness, contentment bliss." Said to be the condition that is totally out of relation to conditioned, manifestation.  Held to be the summum-bonum of the devotion and discipline of (Sat-Chit-Ananda)  the devotee-ascetic.  However, if one reads carefully The Voice of the Silence, pp. 77-79, one realizes that  there is a still far higher goal. Parabrahmam.

Sati       .           .           .Wife of Siva.  Daughter of Daksha.  To win her in marriage, Siva built 1,000 temples overnight for Daksha.

Sattva (Guna)    .           Truth, Goodness, Purity, Divinity, Universality.

Satya    .           .           Supreme Truth, Unconditioned Reality.

Satya Loka       .           Plane, world of infinite purity and wisdom, Celestial abode of Brahma and the gods.

Satyavati           .           Wife of Santanu.  Mother of Vyasa.

Satya Yuga       .           Golden age of truth and purity, Krita Yuga.

Satyas  .           .           Name for the 12 great gods.

Satyaki .           .           Hero on Kurukshetra field, supported Pandus.  "Truthful." Also called Yuyudhana, (Anxious to Fight."  Kinsman of Krishna, King of the Vrishnis.

Satya-loka         .           Highest Heaven, abode of the Mahatmas.

Satya Yuga       .           Golden Age of Purity, this will follow the Kali Yuga.

Savitri   .           .           Divine unrisen Sun.  After its arising, the Sun is called Surya.  Spiritual Sun.

Sena     .           .           Army.  Female aspect of Kartikeya. Kaumara.

Serpent .           .           Symbol of Eternity, Time, Wisdom.

Sesha   .           .           Vishnu's serpent-couch.  Wisdom.  Eternal Cycles.  Material Universe of action.

Seva     .           .           Service.  The Mahatmas have adopted the descriptive designation: "Servants of Humanity."

Shabda .           .           Sound.  Word.

Shabda Brahman           Krishna.  The LOGOS-Word.  The Spiritual Will. The HIGHER SELF.  Ishwara.

Shaivya .           .           "Preeminent."  Pandava Chieftain.

Shambhu           .           One of Siva's names.

Shangana          .           Mystical robe or vesture.  Initiation, the acquirement of Secret Wisdom. [Voice 35]

Shankara          .           Aspect of Siva.  Chief of Rudras, destroyers of illusion and forms.

Shantam-Shivam-Advaitam ... Sa Atma . The Supreme Spirit in Man [ The Higher Self-ATMA ] is Peace, Bliss and Unity. Or, he is One with the Universe.

Shanti   .           .           Peace   [ Kshanti = patience ]

Sharira (Sarira)             Form or Body. Made up of skandhas [life-atoms] of Matter.  (see SD I 157).

Shastra .     (Shastri)       .           Treatise or book of divine or accepted authority.  Can be religious, philosophical or scientific.  Shastri:  learned in the lore and the law.

Shila     .           .           Paramita of Harmony.  That which actively  balances all Karmic causes with their effects.  Dynamic harmony is rest on the constantly moving manifested world.  [ Voice, p. 52.]

Shiva (Siva).  (Shiva-Rudra)    .           "Power of general destruction." Dispersal of matter at Pralaya.  He destroys only to  regenerate on a higher plane.  This follows the spiral of evolution, ever upward, as consciousness approaches to the  Divine Unity.  [ Note:  Destruction relates only to the form.  the "Life-atoms," or Monads, which constitute the forms are in themselves immortals, hence they are only dispersed, go to "sleep" for a long time, and then are reawakened to be reassembled at the next onset of evolution to continue their pilgrimage.

Shivam .           .           Bliss, contentment, calm.  One-pointed.

Shraddha          .           Certainty,  trust, faith in the philosophy and the teachings of the Guru.  This does not mean blind faith.  It is the responsibility of every one to consider, reason out, and adopt new ideas based on their moral worth:  harmlessness, impartiality, and universality, being the chief criteria.

Shravaka          .           A listener.  Student.  From root Shru.  [Akoustikoi of Pythagoras' school.]

Shramana         .           .Second of the 9 stages of devotion and study.

(Shravana)                              A practitioner of asceticism.  "Exerciser."  From shrama, action.  [Asketai of Pythagoras' school.]

Shudda .           .           Pure.

Shudra  .           .           [ see Sudra ]  Servile class, last of the 4 castes, it sprang from Brahma's "foot."

Shukshma Sarira           Misty or vapory form.  The "Shadowy" Astral Body.

Shishta  .           .           Seed.  One under instruction.

Siddha  .           .           One who has acquired Siddhis.  Demi-god. Hierarchy of Dhyan Chohans.

Siddhanta          .           Any learned work on astronomy or mathematics.

Siddha-sena      .           "Leader of the Siddhis."  Title of Kartikeya mysterious youth (kumara guha).

Siddhi(s)           .           Psychic or Spiritual powers acquired through discipline and asceticism.  Motive ? "Attributes of perfection."

Sikhandi            .           Pandava Chieftain.  Son of Draupada.

Sin/s     .           .           3 chief:  see Dwesha.

Singha  .           .           Leo.  Lion.

Sinivali  .           .           First day of the New Moon.  Occult.

Sishta   .           .           "Seeds," remnants.  Elect Sages left after every minor Pralaya (obscuration) to become the "seed" of the next humanity.

Sisumara           .           Imaginary rotating belt on which all celestial bodies move. (Tortoise)  Symbol of Krishna's meditation.  Makara.  Dhruva, the Pole Star is placed at its tail.

Sisupala            .           Demon foe of Krishna.

Sita       .           .           Rama's wife.

Siva     [ Shiva ]  .           .           Destroyer and regenerator by transformation under Karmic law.  One of the Trimurti.

Siva-Rudra        .           Vedic name of Siva.

Skandha            .           Ocean of "celestial armies"--T. Glos p.301-2  also, a portion of a book.

Skanda (army). .           Elemental beings impressed with the force of

(Samskara)                             man's choices.  Bearers of Karma. "Branches," "ramifications."  Pancha (5) Skandhas:  1. Form=rupa; 2. Perception=vidana;  3. consciousness=sanjana;  4. action=sanskara;  5. knowledge=vidyana.  These unite at birth to constitute the Personality of man.

Sloka    .           .           Epic meter used in Sanskrit consisting of 32 syllables;  verses in 4 half-lines of eight;  or, in 2 lines of 16 syllables  each. [ Note:  Within this structure a code of sound and vibration has been set which, when expanded gives at least 4  (7 ?) additional meanings to every exoteric sloka.  These esoteric meanings are carefully guarded by the Brahmins entrusted with their perpetuation by oral methods only.]  [ see Sanskrit ]

Smaranam        .           Brooding (over the Waters of the Deep). a  mediative stage.  3rd of the disciplines

Smriti    .           .           Revealed knowledge handed down.  Tradition. "Memory," a daughter of Daksha.  Legal & ceremonial writings of the Brahmins. Less sacred than Sruti, revelation Vedas

Soham (S'ham)  .           "THAT, I AM." Mystic incantation. Involution before evolution.  "Thou art Myself. I am It."  Tatwam Asi.

Soma    .           .           Moon.  Liquid extracted from the Moon plant. Symbol of Secret Wisdom. (T.Glos. p.304)

Soma-datta       .           "Gift of the Moon."

Soma-loka         .           Abode of the Lunar Pitris--Pitriloka.

Somapa            .           .           Pitris.  [ see Trisuparna ]

"Sorcery"      .           Selfishness which perverts the application of Nature's Laws, diverting them to Lower Self aggrandizement.  Source of all evil pain misery and sorrow.  Goetia.  Dugpa. (Sorcery)  Tantrika.  Rakshasa.  Demoniac natures. Bhons.  They provide the source of all creeds and religions, by perverting the truth and instilling dogmas and tyranny  Necromancy.  Ceremonial Magic.  Black  Magic.              [ see Voice, p. 56fn.]

Soul      .           .           Vital principle.  Mind.  3 Souls are in Man: 1. Buddhi-Manas=Spiritual Soul;  2. Manas=Pure logical, rationality;  3. Kama-Manas=Animal Soul, or passional, brain-mind reasoning and feeling combined.
[see Key to Theosophy 91, 135,175]

Sound   .           .           First "quality" of Akasa.  Vibration. Substratum of the akasa. [ T. Glos 370 ] [ see Notes;  Voice, p. 11 ]

Sowanee           .           A srotapati, who practices Sowan, the 1st path in Dhyana-spiritual discipline. A listener, a learner. [ Voice 70fn. ]

 Space   .           .           Chaos.  Swabhavat.  Aditi.  Parabrahmam.  Mulaprakriti.  Abstract:  SAT.  Paramartha.  Mahapurusha.  Not a vacuum.

Sparsa  .           .           Tangibility.  That which can be touched.

Spirit     .           .           A term, in Theosophy, solely applied to that which belongs to Universal Consciousness, and which is its homogeneous and unadulterated emanation.  The Higher Mind (Manas) when linked indissolubly  with Buddhi is a "spirit."  Spirit if formless and immaterial, of the highest spiritual substance--Sudda-satwa--the divine essence, of which the manifesting highest Dhyanis are formed.   [ see Sukshma Sarira ]

Spiritual Ego      .           Each individual spirit--this individuality lasting only throughout the manvantaric  life-cycle--may be described as a center of consciousness, a self-sentient and  self-conscious center;  a state, not a conditioned individuality.

Spiritual Eye      .           Present, latent in each Man-mind.  Is energized by purity of life and initiation by a perfected Man  (Example:  Krishna evokes in Arjuna temporary use of his latent faculty to use the Divine Eye to himself see the "Universal form." It had been acquired by merit earlier by Vyasa-Rishi and Sanjaya.

Sraddha            .           Trust, Faith.  (Oblation to the manes of the deceased along with pinda.)  Reverence.

Srastara            .           Yogi's seat for meditation.  "Neither too high nor too low, etc... (Gita. p.   )"  T. Glos. 307

Sravaka (Shravaka)       Student.  He who causes to hear, a preacher.

Sri        .           .           Beautiful. "Glorious."  Title of honor. Recognition of the inner divine Spirit.

Srivatsa            .           Mystical mark born by Krishna.

Sriyantra           .           Double interlaced triangles.  Seal of Vishnu.

Srotapati           .           "He who enters the stream" that leads to Nirvana.  Usually takes 7 lives of unremitting effort.

                                                [see Voice, p. 40fn, 50fn.]

Srotram            .                       Ear.

Srotriya .           .           A Brahman who practices as distinguished from one who studies theoretically:  Vedavit.

Sruti     .           .           Revelation.  Sacred verses memorized and repeated.  Preservation of ancient wisdom by tradition.

"Star"    .           .           Of Initiation.  Mystic Goal of the disciple. [ see SD I 570-575;  Voice, p. 21fn ]

Sthala-Maya     .           Illusion.  Differentiated, gross matter.

Sthavara           .           Conscious but fixed to one place.  Jagama: conscious but able to move.  Stha=stay; gam=moving, going.

Sthir-atman       .           Universal Soul.  Eternal.  Supreme.

Sthita Prajna     .           One who has perceived the Supreme Reality to be present in his inner Higher Self.

Sthithi   .           .           Stability.  Preservation.

Sthula   .           .           Differentiated, conditioned matter.

Sthula-sarira      .           Gross physical body.  Differentiation.

Sthulopadhi       .           [see SD I 157 ]  The combined lower triad of Man:  physical body, astral body and Life principle in Jagrat-waking state.

"Sub-Race".      .           1/7th of the time taken to pass the whole Host of evolving Egos through a vast period called a "Race."  SD I 152-201 ( see "Globe," "Race," "Round." )

Subhadra          .           Son of Krishna.  Pandava Chieftain.

Subhadraa         .           Arjuna's wife.

Subhava            .           Being.  Self-forming substance.  (see Swabhavat )  Spirit within substance.  The Ideal Cause of the potencies working on the area of formative evolution (not "creation") which potencies become in turn the real causes on grosser planes.  [ see Cause, Antaskarana ]

Substance         .           2 divisions:  perceptible, imperceptible. Distinguish between material and psychic  psychic and spiritual (Suddha-sattwa), Ideal (on higher planes) and real.

Suchi    .           .           Beaming.  Glowing.  Solar Fire.  Also the passion and animal instincts.  Indra. One of the 49 Fires.  (7 x 7).

Su-darshana      .           Discus of Krishna.  Flaming weapon.

Suddha-sattva   .           Divine Substance.  Eternal.  Allows Yogis to  contemplate the concept of the ABSOLUTE. Not limited by gross matter. "Luminiferous, invisible substance of which the  bodies of the Gods and the Highest Yogis  are formed. A conscious state of spiritual Ego-ship rather than any essence."    ( T.Glos. 311)

Sudha   .           .           Food of the Gods, akin to Amrita, the substance that gives immortality.

Sughosa            .           Conch shell of War belonging to Nakula the twin of Sahadeva.  Pandava prince.

Sukha   .           .           Pleasure.

Sukra    .           .           Clean, bright. Venus. Regent:  Usanas.  Guru & preceptor of the Daityas, giants..

Sukshma           .           Atomic, very fine.  Undifferentiated condition of matter.  Monadic essence.

Sukshma Sarira .           Dream-like, illusive body akin to Manomayakosha or "thought-body."  Vesture of the Gods, Dhyanis, Devas.  Sukshmopadhi, containing both the Higher and the Lower Manas, and Kama.  Corresponds to the Swapna state (dream-state).  SD I 157.

Sukshmopadhi   .           The physical body in the dreaming state (Swapna);  and when it passes to dreamlessness (Sushupti), it is in union with the Karanopahi, the "causal body," or Buddhi.

Su-Meru           .           "Lordly Meru."

Sundariya Lahari           Hymn to Daiviprakriti by Shankaracharya

Sunya   .           .           Illusion--all existence is illusory, phantom-like, temporary.

Sunyata            .           Void.  Space.  Nothingness.  Name for our  Universe because of its unreality and illusiveness.

"Supreme Brahma"        Parabrahmam.

Surabhi .           .           Kamaduk,  "Cow-of-plenty."  Yielder of all desires to its possessor.

Sura-Rani         .           Aditi, mother of the gods, suras.

Suras    .           .           Good, spiritual beings.  Gods, devas.  The a-suras are the "no-gods."

Surya    .           .           Sun.  In full daylight, over the horizon. Son of Aditi,  Husband of Sanjana, spiritual consciousness.  Visvakarman, his father-in-law, the divine carpenter, places him, allegorically on a lathe and cuts off an eighth of his rays, creating a dark aureole around him.  Mystery of the last initiation.

Surya-siddhanta             Treatise on Astronomy.

Surya-vansa      .           Solar Dynasty and race.  Descends from Isvaku.  Rama also descended from this.  But          

(Surya-vansa)               Krishna belonged to the race of Yadu, lunar race, or Chandra-vansa.

Sushumna         .           .First of the Sun's rays.  Also a special central nerve which connects the heart  with the Brahmarandra.

Sushupti Avastha           Deep sleep.  High spiritual condition where embodied mind confabulates with the Higher Manas.  "Dreamless sleep." [ see Sukshmopadhi ]

 Sutra    .           .           Religious verse, aphorism.  Also sacred thread worn by highest castes.

Sutratman         .           Spiritual "thread-Soul" linking all principles.  Immortal and Eternal, it threads the memories of the noble deeds, thoughts and aspirations of its personalities on this thread of memory, and these become immortal.  Individuality. Countless personalities are strung on it as memories, as pearls on a string. In this life, all our yesterdays are memories resident in the library of our minds, and recalled at will.

Svabhava          .           .Real nature of any being.  Dharma and Karma  Manifested aspect of Mulaprakriti.

Svabhavat         .           .That which is behind and the cause of World substance.  From it all nature proceeds and into it all returns  "Father-Mother.  The plastic essence of matter.

Svadha .           .           Sacrifice, oblation.

Svaha   .           .           Exclamation:  "Be it so."

Svami (Swami)  .           Master, Lord, Spiritual preceptor.

Svapada            .           .Protoplasm, cells, microscopically small organisms.

Svapna (Swapna).         Dream state wherein the desires of the day are reviewed actively without the supervisory guidance of the Mind-Soul.

Svar Loka         .           Same as Indra-Loka. Heavenly plane.  Atmosphere, the sky.  T. Glos. pp. 336, 367

Svara (Swara)   .           Intonation, sound.  Current of Life Wave. The One Life or Motion.

Svarga  .           .           Heaven.  Bliss subject to Karma.  Enjoyed in consequence of the necessity for assimilation of spiritual experiences and  impulses during earth-life.  Devachan.

Svasti   .           .           "Good-will to the World."  Sacred.  Divine.

Sva-svarupa Jnanam      Knowledge of the vestures of the Self.

Svayambhuva    .           First Manu.  Self-Existing.  Self-created by his own Kriyasakti.  "No father or mother."

Sveta-asvetara              Upanishad  Attached to the Krishna Yajur Veda, by "One who has purified his senses."

Swan (goose)    .           Everlasting Time.  Duration symbol.  Hansa.

Swastika           .           Arani,  womb of the World.  Fiery whirling force of universal Life.

                T          T

 Tad      .           .           THAT.

Tad-aikya         .           Oneness.  Unity.  Absolute.  Universal, unknowable essence--TAD --"THAT.

Taijasi   .           .           Radiant.  Bright.  Illuminated One.  Manas

(Tejas)                                    illuminated by Atma-Buddhi.  Same as Adidaivata.  Clairvoyant consciousness. One of the 4 states of Consciousness. Also:  Star-like, shining envelopes.

Taittriya            .           A Brahmana of the Yajur Veda.

Takshaka          .           Carpenter.  Visvakarman.  [ T. Glos 366. ]

Tala      .           .           Plane.  "Globe."   [ HPB to APS 251 ]

Tamas  .           .           Inertia, indifference. Darkness.  Destruction.  "Foulness."  Lowest of the 3 Gunas.  Matter is blind;  Dhritarashtra representing the physical body is thus "blind."

Tamo-guna       .           Sloth, indifference, inaction.

Tanha   .           .           Thirst for life on this earth, will to live.

Tanhaic Elementals       "Human elementals," skandhas, Personality.

Tanmatra          .           Subtle elements.  "Rudiments," or essence of (Panchatanmatra)  matter.  5 in number:  Gandha, Sparsa, Rupa, Rasa, Shabda, smell, touch, sight, taste, hearing.  From these the 5 gross forms of matter are derived: earth, water, fire, air, and aether.

Tantra  .           .           "Rule, or Ritual."  Religious, magical treatise.  Frequently abused by the uninitiated.  Misunderstood they lead to black magic. 

Tantrika            .           May be versed in the secret meaning of Tantras or a Black Magician.  2 classes: Right-handed=Dakshinacharis, and Left-handed=Vamacharis.  Saktas: "white"and "black" magicians.  Motive makes the difference between these two.

Tapas   .           .           Meditation, abstraction.  Asceticism.  Devotion.  Self-control and when misapplied: self-torture.  .

Tapasvi .           .           Ascetics and anchorites.

Tapo-loka         .           Domain of the Vairajas. "World of the 7 sages One of the 6 "Globes" above ours. [ SD I 200 ]

Tara     .           .           Wife of Brihaspati (Jupiter), abducted by  Soma (Moon).  Mystic knowledge as opposed to ritualistic faith.  Mother of Buddha (wisdom). "Star."

Taraka  .           .           Demon killed by Kartikeya. Daitya. [SD II 382 ]

Taraka Raja Yoga         One of the Brahminical Yoga systems for the  development of purely spiritual powers and knowledge, which lead to Nirvana. The most philosophical system and the  most secret of all.  Its real tenets are never publicly revealed.  It is a purely  intellectual and spiritual school of training.

TAT     .           .           That, the ABSOLUTE.  Parabrahm.  [see Tattwam

Tatpada            .           The "feet" of Parabrahm, which, having been reached, there is no return to embodied life without the willing consent of the successful Adept.  [ Voice, pp.77-9 ]  In that case we have as an example, the Great Sacrifice.  [ SD I 207-210 ]

Tattwa (Tattva)             Eternally existing "THAT.  Also as Tattvas,the 5 Principles (exoterically), 7 Principles (esoterically) in Nature in their occult meaning:  Adi, Anupadaka, Akasa,  etc...  Corresponding to the last two the last two senses are as yet latent in mankind.

Tattwajnyani     .           Knower, or discriminator between the principles in nature and in man.

Tattwatraya      .           The Logos, its Light and Mulaprakriti constitute the Tattwatraya of the Vedantins. Chit.  Daiviprakriti.

Tattya   .           .           Truth as opposed to illusion. The Great Word,  Sound, whereby the Universe is caused to spring into being.

Tatwam Asi      .           "Thou art That."  The Higher Self in each man and woman.  The spiritual "Ray."

Tchandala         .           Outcastes.  Land-less.  Those in antiquity (Chandala)  who had forfeited their right to any of the 4 superior castes by reason of moral irregularity.  Expelled from towns they  became "forest-dwellers" and "bricklayers.-  Expelled from India 2,000 BC, perhaps Semites whose first leader was  A-brahm (No Brahmin).

Tejas    .           .           Brilliance, flame, radiance.

Tempter/ation    .           Mara is the Tempter personified,  Man is tempted through his own vices.  It is that which "kills the Soul."  The Mara's  gem represents the fascination that vice exercises over certain natures.

 Tharana            .           Self-induced trance, mesmerism.  "To brush or [Dharana] sweep away evil influences, tharaka = broom.  Evil bhuts driven away by the beneficent will of the mesmerizer.

THAT  .           .           The One Life.- the UNIVERSE

Thread Soul      .           Sutratma.  The Individuality on whose immortality are strung, as beads the memories of all previous lives and personalities.

Three Faces      .           Trimurti.  Three in One.

Three Fires       .           Atma-Buddhi-Manas,  Individuality.  Immortal Spiritual Man.  Sutratma.

Time     .           .           (see Kala).  The divisions, in manifestation, of Duration.

Tirthankara       .           Jain Gurus.  A Tile given to 24 of their Chief ascetics and perfected Souls. Synonym of Jina, Jaina.

Tirthika (Tirthaka)         "Heretical teachers -- Brahmins who teach  only the "letter of the law," and conceal its spirit out of pride.   [ see Voice, p. 42fn.]

Tishya  .           .           A synonym of Kali Yuga. 

Titiksha .           Endurance, patience.  5th state of the Raja Yogi--supreme indifference, submission, if necessary, to earth life, but deriving no pleasure or pain from such submission. becoming physically, mentally, and morally insensible to either pleasure or pain.       [ Voice, p. 70 fn.]

Trailokya          .           "Three regions" or "worlds."  Complementary to the Brahmanical quaternary Bhuvanatraya, which are purely material, physical.-

                                                 1.  Bhur-loka     earth

                                                2.  Bhuvah-loka heaven

                                                3.  Swar-loka    atmosphere

                                                4.  Mahar-loka  Luminous essence.

 "Tree of Wisdom"          Aswattha Tree. Bo tree.  Symbol of the Wisdom of the Ages.  Sanatana Dharma.

                                                [see T. Glos. 337; Voice, p. 26fn ]  [ B. Gita, Chapter 15.]

Treta-Yuga       .           Second Yuga, age of Silver, 1,296,000 years.

Trai-loka           .           3 Lokas: of gods, men and the semi-divine.

Treta Yuga       .           Silver-age, 2nd of 1,296,000 years.

Triangle            .           Triad:  Atma-Buddhi-Manas;  Agni-Vayu-Surya,

(Triad)                                    Symbol of level of Initiation.                 [ Voice, p. 21 fn.]

 Tri-Bhuvana      .           Tri-loka.  The three "worlds." Exoterically: Heaven=swarga;  Earth-bhumi;  Hell=patala.  Esoterically they are the Spiritual the Psychic (or Astral) and the Terrestrial sphere.

Triguna .           .           Three (3) inherent qualities of differentiated matter: 

                                                1.  Sattva=pure quiescence;      

(Triguna)                               2. Rajas=activity and desire;  and

                                                3. Tamas=stagnation and decay. 

                                     They correspond to Vishnu, Brahma and Siva.

Trijnana            .           "Triple knowledge." 

                                                 1.  Belief on faith;         

                                                2.  Belief on theoretical knowledge, and

                                                3.  Belief through personal and practical knowledge and observation.

 Trikaya .           .           Three forms.  Explains every triad or trinity Key to every 3-fold metaphysical symbol.

                        1.  In Man:  Spirit;  Soul;  and Body. 

                         2.  In the Universe

                                                 1.         Deific, purely spiritual Principle;

                                                2.         Supernal Beings--its direct Rays, and

                                                3.         Humanity (in which these are latent, potential, and are being developed.) This is the ancient Pantheistic Ideal.

                         3.  In Buddhism :

                                                 1.         Adi-Budha (Primordial Universal Wisdom),

                                                2.         The Dhyani-Buddhas (or Bodhisattvas),

                                                3.         The Manushi (Human) Buddhas.

                         4. In Europe:  God, Angels, Humanity.

                         5. 3 Divine Vestures of Perfection

:                                                1.         Nirmanakaya,

                                                2.         Sambhogakaya, and

                                                3.         Dharmakaya     [Voice 77-8 fn]

                                                            [ see:  Tri-kaya, Tri-ratna ]

 

Trilochana         .           "Three eyed."  Title of Shiva  [ SD II 289 ]

Trimurthi           .           Primeval:  Agni-Vayu-Surya, and later Vishnu, Brahma and Siva.  Vishnu, One yet 3-fold creates, preserves and destroys.  These are the 3 qualitative gunas, or attributes of the differentiated Universe, Spirit-Matter:  self-formative, self-preserving, and self-destroying for purposes of regeneration and perfectibility.               [ T. Glos. p. 340-1 ]

Tri-ratna           .           Three (3) gems:  Dharma (duty or moral law in action),  Bodhi (or wisdom, as a creative energy), and Samgha (the comprehensive sum-total of all real life).  This last applies specifically to the disciples offering themselves for initiation.  [ T. Glos., pp. 342-3 ]

Trisharna          .           The difference between Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya, and  Dharmakaya explained. 

                                                                        [ T. Glos., pp. 342-4 ]

Trishna .           .           Spiritual Love.

Trishula            .           Siva's trident.  Tridandi.  (Wand with trident points.)

Tri-vidya           .           3 Knowledges, or sciences:  Fundamental axioms in mysticism and esotericism: 

(Tri-vidya)                    1. Anitya -- the impermanence of all existing  things; 

                                       2.  Dukha -- the suffering and misery that afflicts all that lives;  and, 

                                       3.  Anatma -- all objective things are as evanescent as a bubble in a dream.  But, this also serves to demonstrate the fact that there is the Knower of these which is immortal, eternal and Permanent.  This is the ATMA-Spirit, which resides within each human.

Trivikrama (dwarf)        Vishnu, who takes 3 strides:  1. on Earth as  Agni, god of Fire, 2. in the atmosphere, as Vayu, god of the air, and 3. in the firmament, as Surya, the Sun.

Triyana .           .           Three vehicles or stages whereby the "ocean of Samsara, obligatory rebirth is crossed: 

                                                1. Sravaka+disciple, chela; 

                                                 2.  Pratyekha Buddha-(who lives for himself, and very little for others, filling the whole of the "middle vehicle"  Madhyimayana and leaving no room for others);  and 

                                                 3.  Bodhisattva -- wise essences, on the threshold of  Buddhaship.

"Truth"  .           .           Reality. ALL, the ABSOLUTE in its para aspect Apara-lower aspect of Truth is "relative truth.  4 stages: 

                                                 1. Ku = suffering, misery; 

                                                2. Tu = the assembling of temptations; 

                                                3. Mu = their destruction; and

                                                4. Tau = the "Path."  [ Voice, p. 22 fn.]

 Turiya-avastha  .           Higher state of meditation beyond Samadhi. Entered only by Initiates.  Universal Perception of all Causes and Laws.  A  condition of the Divine Triad (Atma-Buddhi-Manas) quite distinct, though  still  inseparable, from the condition of Jagrat (waking), Swapna (dreaming), and Sushupti (dreamless sleep)--which are our present parameters of knowledge.    [ see Voice, p. 6 fn. ]

Turiya Chaitanya           The 4th "life-wave"  Daiviprakriti.  Atma.     [ see Maha Chaitanya ]

Tushita .           .           Devachan.  High meditative state in the interval between births, where moral acts are reviewed and assimilated.

Twashtri           .           Divine artist, carpenter and weapon-maker of  the Gods, Visvakarman.

Tyaga   .           .           Forsaking, sacrifice.  Giving up the world of  illusion.

             U         U

Uchchi-sravas   .           White horse of Indra.

Udana  .           .           Organ of speech: tongue, mouth, etc...Sutras.

Uddhava           .           A devotee of Krishna.

Ulupi    .           .           Daughter of Karavya, King of the Nagas in Patala (America) married to Arjuna who traveled there.  In Greece he was  named Orpheus (swarthy).  (Orphic  Mysteries instituted by him.)             [ SD II 214fn; T. Glos 352 ]

Uma-Kanya      .           ."Virgin of Light." Female aspect of Siva.  First mentioned in Kena Upanishad, as a benevolent goddess, beaming light and  goodness.  Saraswati.  Vach.  Esoterically, Kali is the dual soul:  divine and human, the light and the dark of  man's nature. 

Una      .           .           Subordinate, underlying, secondary.

Universe           .           A vast field of evolution.  Ruled by Law. Cooperative.  Balanced.  A School, or training program, where the tiniest portion of intelligence--indefinable-- is given the potential, over innumerable ages of interaction, to develop its innate wisdom into a docile personality. Choice, free-will and motive lead it to further advance to Universal Wisdom.

Upadana           .           Material cause as flax is the cause of linen.

Upadana Karanam        Material cause of an effect.  Earth and water are the upadana of a pillar.

Upadhi  .           .           Basis, foundation.  Vehicle of something more tenuous (the human body is the vehicle of the Soul/Spirit, aether is the upadhi of light.  A mold, defining or limiting substance.  Akasa is the upadhi of Light and our physical body is the upadhi of Atma-Buddhi-Manas.  Substructure. Substance is the upadhi of Spirit.

Upadhyaya       .           Guru, a spiritual preceptor.  A Narjol.  Teacher of secret wisdom.          [ Voice, p. 49 fn ]

Upadrasta         .           Absolute Consciousness within each man.  The Witness, disinterested, which "sitteth on high, unaffected."  The "One Consciousness."

Upamana          .           Comparison, analogy, correspondence.

Upanayanam.    .           Ceremony of Thread giving.  First initiation of higher castes in India.

                                                                        [ Path IV, p. 348 ]

Upanishad/s      .           Secret knowledge.  "Sitting down close to" Wisdom and learning it.  158 principal Upanishads are known, but there are many more.  Appended to the Brahmanas, "that which destroys ignorance and gives liberation of the Spirit through the  knowledge of the supreme, though hidden truth."  Echoes of the Primeval Wisdom-Religion (see Vedanta.  Metaphysical questions explained.  The Kshatriyas are exalted in the oldest of them.  "The  great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmins are continually represented as going to Kshatriya Kings to become their pupils."  Elect incarnations of the Dhyani Buddhas or Kumaras. The Upanishads have a total absence of  Brahmanical exclusiveness in their doctrines.  The Brahmins, are shown as going to Kshatriya Kings (Raja-Rishis) to  become their pupils (chelas).  they were written before the enforcement of caste rules and the rise of Brahmanical power, and, they demonstrate that occult science or the "Para-Vidya" (higher knowledge) is far older than the advent of the Brahmans in India, or even the establishment of them as a caste.   The Upanishads are later than Gupta Vidya or the "Secret Science" which is as old as human thought.  [T. Glos. p. 354]

Uparati .           .           Renunciation of formal religion by a disciple Renunciation of outgoing desires, a Yogi tolerates all views and seeks to educe their inner meaning.  Tolerance.

Upasaka           .           Male devotees, chelas.  Upasika: female.

Upasama          .           Quiet, cessation, control.

Upasana           .           Devotion, religious meditation. 

Upasruti            .           Astral voice of a Guru, heard at a distance.

Upeksha           .           Renunciation.  Absolute control of desire. Complete mastery of one's mental and  physical feelings and sensations.

Uragas .           .           Celestial beings, higher elementals possessing great knowledge.  Masters of Wisdom. A word, like Ulupi, which was used in  So. America for the Naga, "Wise Serpent"of Patala, the antipodes (America).

Urvasi  .           .           Divine nymph.  Cast down to Earth.

Usanas (Usana)            .           Planet Venus.  Its Ruler:  Oosana.  Esoterically Venus is said to be the "elder sister" of the Earth and its protector.

Usha    .           .           Dawn.  Sandhi.

Ushmapa          .           Deceased ancestor: "feeder on warmth."

Uttama Adhikarina        Best of the 4 classes of devotees. Vedantins.

Uttama Purusha            .           Maheshwara, Supreme Spirit.  Maha-Vishnu.

Uttamauja         .           "Brave,"  Pandava Chieftan.

Uttara   .           .           "Superior (Northern)."  Son of Virata, and  brother-in-law to Abhimanyu.

Uttaraa .           .           Daughter of King Virata, and wife of  Abhimanyu.

Uttara Mimansa                        Second Mimansa included with Purva = Vedanta.  Uttara Mimansa, authored by Vyasa is the   true Vedanta.

             V         V

 Vach (Vak)      .           Speech, Sound, Mystic Word.  Logos, or collective Host of the Dhyan Chohans.  The mystic personification of Speech.  Female Logos, one with Brahma.  Speech by which knowledge was taught to mankind. Subjective Creative Force which, emanating from the Creative Deity (subjective    Universe, as its "privation," or ideation) becomes the manifested "world of  speech."  The concrete expression of  ideation."  Vach-Viraj or male-female. A voice derived from speechless Brahma. Sata-rupa, goddess of 100 forms. The 4 forms of Vach are:  Para, Pasyanti, Madhyama, and Vaikhari.

                                                                        [ see SD I 138, 430-434.]

Vahan {Vahana)           Vehicle, sheath, carrier. [T. Glos. p.357-8 ]

Vaibhachika      .           Ancient philosophy of materialism, holding that no mental concept can be held unless there is a direct contact between the mind via the senses (gnyanindriyas) and the external, material object.

Vaidhatra          .           The Kumaras.  Dhyan Chohans.

Vaiduta .           .           Electric Fire.  Pavaka.

Vaikhari Vach   .           Uttered speech.

Vaikriti .           .           Modification or change.

Vaikunta-loka    .           Abode of Vishnu and the 12 Great Gods.

Vairagya (Viraga)         Freedom from worldly desires or passions. "Indifference to pleasure or to pain, Truth alone perceived." [Voice, 52-3] Dispassion.

Vairajas            .           Nirmanakayas.  Plane: Tapo-loka.  Called the first gods, because the Manasaputras and the Kumaras are the oldest in Theogony.

Vairochana       .           "All-enlightening."  Embodiments of bodhi, essential wisdom and absolute purity. Abode is Arupa-dhatu. The highest hierarchy of Dhyani Buddhas.

Vaisheshika      .           Atomistic School of philosophy. [T.Glos. 359]

Vaishnava         .           Worshiper of Vishnu.  Saivas: of Siva.

Vaishya            .                       3rd of the 4 castes, whose natural duties include ploughing, cattle raising and trade.

Vaivaswata       .           7th Manu.  Forefather of our mankind.  Son of Surya, saved from flood in an ark.  Father of Ikshwaku, founder of the Surya-vansa, the solar dynasty.

Vaivaswata-Manu         Reigning Manu of this Manvantara.

Vajra  .           .           Diamond scepter.  Symbol of superhuman powers possessed by certain priests.  Indra's thunderbolt.
  [ see Dorje,  Voice, 59 ]

Vajracharya      .           Chief of the Yogacharyas.  Spiritual Guru.

Vajra-nabha      .           Discus weapon of Krishna.  Sudarshana.

Vajrasattva       .           "Diamond-soul."  Title of the Supreme Buddha. [ Voice, p. 28fn. ]

Valli     .           .           "Creeper." 

Valmiki-rishi.     .           Author of the Ramayana.   A Rishi.

Vamana            .           5th avatar of Vishnu.  A dwarf.

Vandanam        .           6th of the 9 stages of discipline/devotion. Seeing the Deity everywhere and in everything.

Varaha .           .           3rd avatar of Vishnu.  A "boar."

Varanaka          .           .           Enveloping, surrounding.

Varna   .           .           Caste or, literally:  "color of the subtle bodies."  These "colors" are perceived at a certain stage of discipline when the astral world becomes perceptible.

Varna Shankar  .           Destruction of Caste.  Social chaos.  Our present situation in Kali Yuga where preservation of hereditary purity of racial descent is impossible.

Varsha .           .           Region, plane. Place.

Varuna .           .           God of the Waters (of Space), and of Akasa.  Illimitable knowledge.  Upholds heaven and Earth.  All-knowing.  Highest God.

Varuni  .           .           Wife of Varuna.

Vasana .           .           Knowledge derived from memory.  Impression remaining unconscious in the lower mind. Producing pleasure or pain from past. Impressions made on the plastic astral material of all "life-atoms."    See Sanskara.

Vasishta-Rishi   .           Primeval Sage.

Vasu    .           .           Cosmic phenomena.  Limitations, illusions, 8 "evils" of prakriti.  Chief:  Pavaka. A class of Devas-elementals.

Vasudeva         .           Father of Krishna.  A Yadava of the Somavansa, Lunar dynasty.

Vasuki  .           .           Chief of the poisonous Serpent clan.

Vayu    .           .           Air, wind.  Corresponds with Kama-manas. God of the Air.  King of the Gandharvas. Wind: vata.  Father of Hanuman.  A form of Indra.  Corresponds to Kama-Manas.

Veda    .           .           Revelation."  From the root vid to know. Most ancient source of Divine Wisdom. Sruti.  Sacred knowledge in vocal utterances handed down by tradition. Rig, Saman and Yajur Veda, are the originals, Atharva Veda was added later. Knowledge.          [ T. Glos. pp. 361-2 ]

Vedana .           .           Sensation.  Knowledge obtained through the senses (gnyanindriyas). A skandha.

Vedanta            .           System of Universalism in Philosophy taught by Krishna and the Rishis.  Vyasa founded this School of Philosophy.  The "end of all Knowledge--Brahma-jnana."  The "Kabbala" of India.  Popularized by  Shankaracharya, founder of Advaita, non dualistic. Philosophy developed and perfected over millennia, by generations of  Sages and Seers who have cross-checked their observations, so as to render them faultless.  [ see SD I 272-3 ]  Shankaracharya popularized this system. He founded the non-dualistic Advaita system.  "Uttara-Mimansa."

Veda-Vyasa     .           Compiler of the Vedas.

Venus   .           .           Daitya-Guru, spiritual guide and instructor. Usanas.  Lucifer-bright morning star. Sukra.  Usanas.
[ Glos. 76 ]

Verbum            .         The Word.  Shabda Brahma.  Ishwara.  Pratyagatma.  The 1st manifestation of Para-brahmam.- Logos

Vetala  .           .           Ghost.  Spook that haunts burial grounds.

Vetala Siddhi     .           Sorcery using elementaries and elementals to obtain power over the living.  Possession, obsession.

Vibhavasu         .           Mystic fire connected with the onset of  Pralaya, dissolution of the Universe.

Vibhutis            .           .Divine excellences.  Attributes of the highest example of achievement in any category of beings.
  [ see Gita, Chapter X ]

"Vice"   .           .           Selfishness.  Belief that the material form is permanent, and has a need for acquiring or dominating in disregard to the needs and rights of others.  [ see Voice, p. 52-3, 69fn.]

Videha  .           .           Himalayan foothills of North Bihar.

Vidura  .           .           Son of Vyasa.

Vidya   .           .           Learned Science.  Head knowledge.  Observing.

Vignana                        Understanding, perception of worldly facts in the light of the Higher Mind.

Vignanamaya-kosha      Sheath of the intellect which includes Higher  Manas and Buddhi.  Discrimination.  [ SD I 157 ]

Vihara  .                       Cave-temple or retreat.

Vijayanti                       Vishnu's necklace, made of 5 precious elements symbolized by 5 precious stones: pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and diamond.  Also, 5 elemental powers controled by Krishna.

Vijnanam (Vignanam)    Higher Manas.  Higher mind and intellect. Pure, moral, compassionate.

Vikalpa .           .           Doubt, distinctions, duality perceived.

Vikara  .                       .Something changed or altered from an earlier  prakriti, or producer.  A construct. Qualities, attractions. Attribute.

Vikarna            .                       Kuru chief. 

Vikarttna          ..          "Shorn of his Rays."  Sun as the type of the initiated neophyte.

Vikshepa          ..          Refutation in argument.

Viman  .           .           [ see Viwan ]  Flying Vehicle,

Vimoksha         .           Nirvana.

Vina (Been)      .           Indian Lute, 7 stringed.  Mythological instrument the prototype of which is said to have been constructed by Narada, Siva, or others.  [ Sitar is a simpler version of this instrument. ]

Vindhya            .           Range of forested mountains in Central India.

Vinnana (Vignana)        "Mental power."  One of the 5 Skandhas.

Viparyaya         .           Ignorance proceeding from the illusion of  the senses.  Avidya.

Viprachitti         .           Chief of the Danavas.  Titans.

Virabhadra        .           Divine son emanated by Siva.

Viraga  .           .           Indifference to the manifested Universe, to (Vairaga) pleasure as to pain.  Akin to "disgust."

Viraj     .           .           Hindu Logos.  Male Manu created in the female portion of Brahma's body.  Springs from Purusha, and Purusha springs from Viraj. Prototype of all male forms, as Sata-rupa is the prototype of the female.

Virata   .           .           "Wide Ruler."  King of Matsya, at whose Court the Pandavas had taken refuge, in disguise, during 13th year of their exile. Located near Jaipur, northern Rajestan.

Virhu    .           .           Omnipresence.

"Virtue/s"          .           Unselfishness, generosity, compassion, nobility, pity for the disadvantaged and active effort to ameliorate the pain and suffering of others.  Paramitas 7 and 10.                    [ Voice, pp. 52-3, 69fn.]

                                                 "Six Glorious Virtues" [ Friendly Phil. 80-1]

Virya    .           .           Dauntless energy employed by the Disciple, as the will to succeed.  [ Voice p. 52-3 ]

Vishada            .                Despondency. Distress, Despair arising from a realization of the transitory nature of man's life and earthly desires.

Vishaya            .                       Physical Organs of perception, corresponding to relative gnyan-indriya.

Vishnu  .           .           All-pervading.  Sustainer of all Life in the Universe.  Vish=to pervade.  Solar energy.  Sahasranama, the 1,000 named One. Second of the Trimurti.  However Maha-Vishnu is the Eternal, Unmanifest. the  ABSOLUTE, and therefore includes all of the manifested Trimurti.

Vishvas            .                       Great Qualities.  Virtues embodied. Trust.

Vishwa .           .           Objective consciousness. One of the 4 states.

Visvakarma      .           "Father of the Sacred Fire, and the Gods."

(Vishwakarman)                     Highest "Creator."  Logos.  "The Divine Artisan (Carpenter)." 

Visvamitra        .           "Friend of the Universe."  A Brahmarishi.

Visva-Nara       .           Universal Man.  Krishna.  Collective consciousness of mankind.  Basis of the material world, needed for the evolution and independence of the individual mind.

Vittesha            .           "Lord of Wealth" among the Yakshas and Rakshasas--sensual and evil nature sprites.

Vivaswat (Vivaswan)    Sun.  First manifestation of Divine Wisdom. "The Bright One."  The Sun.  Hiranyagarbha-Brahman, the creator of our Universe.

Viveka  .           .           Discrimination.  Discernment.  The power of separating the Divine Spirit from the  visible world of matter, truth from untruth.

Viwan [ Viman ].          Air vehicle, mentioned but not described.

Void     .           .           [ see Space ]

Vrata    .           .           Power of the gods.

Vratani .           .           Varuna's "active laws."

Vriddha Manava           Laws of Manu.

Vrihaspati         .           [ see Brihaspati ]  Jupiter.  Guru.

Vrishni  .           .           Lunar Race of which Krishna was a descendent physiologically.  His father was Vasuddeva, brother to the evil Kansa, of the Vrishni tribe.

Vritas   .           .           Drought as a demon.  Wars with Indra. Also, (Vritra) rites and austerities, ceremonies.

Vritti     .           .           Event.  Action.  Rule.

Vyakta .           .           Evident, discernible, manifest.  An aspect of Mulaprakriti--discrete effect.

Vyahritis           .           "Words lit by and born of fire."  3 mystical creative worlds:  Bhur, Bhuvah, Swar.  Mahar is the 4th.           [ T. Glos. p. 367 ]

Vyasa   .           .           A Rishi.  Spiritual Instructor.  A Title, not a personal name.  The Mahabharata was authored by the 28th Vyasa.  "He who expands or amplifies."  [ a Petroma ] "Revealer of sacred Lore."

             W         W

Water   .           .           First principle of all things.  Space.  The unrevealed.  ABSOLUTE.  Alkahest.

Will      .           .           In occult philosophy:  the one and sole principle of abstract eternal MOTION.

                                                            [ see T. Glos. p. 370 ]

Wisdom            .           "The One wisdom is in the Sound."  Word. Logos, Demiurge.  The essence of that  which is the principle of Wisdom is still above that highest Wisdom known to mankind.           [ T. Glos. p. 370 ]

Wisdom Religion           Theosophy is based on this Hidden Knowledge. Sanatana Dharma.  The Eternal Doctrine. Facts as they are.  Gupta Vidya.

Wittoba .           .           A form of Vishnu.  Crucified in Space.  Savior.

             Y         Y

 Yadava .           .           Descendent of Yadu, the Lunar-race, dynasty.  Krishna was born in this race.  He established Dwaraka in Gujerat (Kathia- war) a city which perished after his death (3,102 BC).  Only a few who were  absent from the town have perpetuated  this race.                       [ T. Glos. 374 ]

Yagna (Yajna). .           Sacrifice.  Symbol Mriga-shiras (deer head). Key to Trai-vidya.  The eternal sacrifice  Sacrificial of the Spiritual for the material, the temporary, so as to provide a base for the evolution of intelligence, mind and consciousness. Yajna exists as an invisible presence extending from the Ahavaniya (sacrificial fire) to the heavens, forming a bridge or a ladder for communication with the devas in their abode: akasa. It is one of the forms of akasa, and is to be accessed with the Word, energized by the creative Will of the Wise.

                                                                        [ T. Glos. p. 375 ]

Yajna Purusha  .           He for whom sacrifice is performed:  The  Higher Self, the Supreme Spirit. Ishwara

 Yajnavalkya      .           Ancient Sage.  A Rishi to whom are attributed authorship of the White Yajur Veda, the Satapatha Brahmana, and the Brihad Aranyaka.  [ see Mundaka Upanishad ]

Yakshas   (Yakshasas)        .           Power of Material Nature. "Devourers and Destroyers."  Constant changers. Eaters. Elementals in the Astral Light.

Yama   .           .           "Forbearance."  First stage of Yoga.  Also God of Death.  King of the Pitris, and the kama-rupas in Kama-loka.  Yama was also the embodiment of the first race to  receive Manas (consciousness) without  which there is neither Heaven nor Hades. Twin sister: Yami  (red and green colors complementaries.) [ T. Glos. pp. 375-6 ]

Yamaloka         .           Devachan,  Swarga.

Yamuna            .           Jumna river.

Yasodha           .           Wife of the cowherd chief of Gokul, Nanda, and foster-mother to Krishna.

Yati      .           .           Measure of 3 feet in length.

Yatu     .           .           Human animal passions.

Yoga                .           Union with the Divine. Philosophy taught by Patanjali.  Thought based on understanding of the Spiritual Person resident in every being, and evolving in Man, Yajnavalkya, an ancient Sage, originated the Yoga disciplines which consisted in meditation on metaphysical themes, moral purity, retirement into the isolation of the forests for magnetic purposes. It is an understanding of Higher Morality, and the practicing of meditation as a means of leading to spiritual liberation. Psycho-spiritual powers are obtained thereby as a side-effect;  and induced  ecstatic states, brought under control, lead to a clear and correct perception of eternal truths in both the visible and the invisible universe. Also the Darshana, or School of Philosophy, founded by Patanjali.

Yogacharya      .           Teacher of the Yoga philosophy. An esoteric  School of Wisdom.   [ T. Glos. p. 381 ]

Yoga-maya       .           Light of Ishwara.  Daiviprakriti.  The veil behind which the ABSOLUTE remains ever invisible and unperceived by men.

 Yoga-Vasishta  .           A treatise on Yoga, communicated by Rishi  Vasishta to Rama, the 7th avatar of Vishnu.

Yoga-vidya       .           Divine Knowledge.

Yogi     .           .           State where the Sage is absolute master of all 6 "principles." His knowledge of Self gives him perfect and complete control over his lower self.  The designation has been vulgarised, so that every one who sets himself up as a self- proclaimed guru may adopt this designation incorrectly debasing a noble and ancient term of deep respect for the  truly Wise.

Yoni     .           .           Womb. Protective sheath.  Magnetic sphere.

Yudhamanyu     .           "The Brave."

Yudhishtira       .           Eldest of the Pandavas.  The King-Leader of the Righteous Clan.  Dharma-Raja.  Represents Higher Ego (Manas) in Man. "The Righteous."  Mystic father: Dharma, the God of righteous and necessary duty.

Yuga    .           .           An Age.  We are now in the Kali Yuga, which  began at Krishna's death, 3,102 B.C. There are 4 Yugas:  1. Satya or Krita - "golden,"  2.  Treta, or of  silver; 3.  Dwapara, of bronze;  and 4. Kali, of darkness-iron.
  For a table of  these, see SD II 68-70.

Yuyudhana       .           Pandava chieftain.  [see Satyaki]  "Eager to  fight."

              Z          Z

 Zodiac  .           .           Chakra, the Wheel of Stars.  Disc of Vishnu Kala Chakra:  Circle of Time, cycle.

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 The above is intended for student use.

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